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yyiiftmotL /BallaliofL TyUmiiimmt 

i 386] 

JULY, 1938 



This White Cross 
at Shell Dealers' means you 
can be sure -LOOK FOR IT! 



in accordance with the editorial specifications of 


/ will appreciate your co-operation in helping me keep this pledge. 

IN the April issue, Good Housekeep- 
ing Magazine published an article 
about station rest rooms, telling how 
they ought to be equipped and how 
clean they ought to be kept in the in- 
terest of public health and comfort. 

We Shell dealers heard of this article 
and read it with much interest. 

Since then our station rest rooms 
have been inspected, and dealers 
whose rest rooms were found up to 
the standards specified by Good 
Housekeeping have been given the 
w Home-Clean Certificate" shown. 

We who have been awarded the Cer- awarded the Certificate. If you find a 
tificate have agreed to keep our rest rest room that falls below Good House- 
rooms scrupulously clean, and we un- keeping standards, write your criti- 
derstand that the Certificate will be cism on a card and mail it. 
withdrawn fromus if we fail to do this. When on the road, look for Shell's 
Our rest rooms will be inspected WHITE CROSS OF CLEANLINESS dis- 
regularly. Also, we are providing post played in front of stations. It means 
cards in rest rooms which have been you can be sure. 






(Buy. (Bs&L SuqaJv 

Stock up on beet sugar now for a big season of home canning of the plen- 
tiful supply of fresh fruits and vegetables now on the market. Look ahead 
and plan to fill your cupboards with delicacies, which you'll relish and be 
thankful for next winter! 

Use extra-fine, pure, granulated beet sugar — the finest you can buy. It's 
quick-dissolving and unsurpassed for canning and preserving. Also cheap- 
er, therefore, more economical to use. 


All America is concerned with farm surpluses, because surpluses af- 
fect the purchasing power of the farmer, and, in turn, the whole struc- 
ture of American economic life. 

American farmers raise approximately one million acres of sugar beets 
each year. What's more, a million acres in sugar beets is not another 
million surplus acres of wheat or corn! 

Furthermore, no other major American crop returns to the farmer as 
much per acre and contributes to industry and agriculture as much as 
the sugar beet and the resultant beet sugar industry. 

America needs the beet sugar industry . . . the industry needs the sup- 
port of farmers, merchants, housewives, canneries, and statesmen. 




'The Glory of God is Intelligence' 

JULY, 1938 





Heber J. Grant, 
John A. Widtsoe, 


Richard L. Evans, 

Managing Editor 
Marba C. Josephson, 

Associate Editor 

George Q. Morris, General Mgr. 
Lucy G. Cannon, Associate Mgr. 
J. K. Orton, Business Mgr. 

JohlsL jd(L QwdtswiA, 

JPul £dihfiL (Pago, 

A Word to Youth . 

Heber J. Grant 391 

Serve Your "Own Generation" John A. Widtsoe 392 

An "Ideal" Book of Mormon Geography ... Lynn C* Layton 394 

The Lord's Way Out of Bondage LeRoi C. Snow 400 

The Story of Our Hymns.. George D, Pyper 404 

Some Photographic Highlights of June Conference 405 

Our Friend-Making Missionaries in the Netherlands 

J* Paul Vorkink and Joseph P. Lambert 412 

Bates College Confers Honorary Degree on Frank W. 
Asper, 387; News of the West German Mission, Fred W. 
Babbel, 433; Another Trek to Hill Cumorah, Ira J. Markham, 
411; The Church Moves On, 415; Visual Aid in the Cali- 
fornia Mission, 421; Priesthood: Melchizedek, 422; Ward 
Teaching, 426; Aaronic Priesthood, 427; Genealogical Page, 
429; Department of Education, 429; Mutual Messages and 
Field Photos, 430, 431, 432, 434, 435; M. I. A. Activities 
Point the Way to Progress in East Central States, Bassett 
T. Wright, 431; Missionaries at Fort Sumter, Merrill J. 
Wood, 432; Brigham City Honors Brigham Young, 434. 

The Protestors of Christendom — Part V\ continued 

____ James L. Barker 396 

The Last of the "Dickens' Boys" .Helen Miller Lehman .403 

Slavery Caused an Indian War Carlton Culmsee 406 

Cayuga's "Other Wise Man" 

Joseph Williams and John Farr Larsen 410 

Why I Do Not Smoke Dorothy Dyer Akers 413 

Exploring the Universe, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., 388; On the 
Book Rack, 418; Homing: Summer Reading, 419; Here's 
How, 419; Index to Advertisers, 442; Your Page and Ours, 

The Training of Youth John A. Widtsoe 416 

M, L A. June Conference Richard L. Evans 416 

A Rising Vote Against Liquor and Tobacco 

Richard L. Evans 417 

A Woman's Sphere Marba C. Josephson 417 

Beckoning Roads — Chapter 6 Dorothy C* Robinson 398 

The Phantom Herd — An Historical Narrative 

Robert M. Hyatt 409 

The Color of Courage Beth Harmon 402 

Frontispiece: The Wedding Journey, Zara Sabin, 390; Poetry 
Page 414; Contrast, Gilean Douglas, 432; Which Way, 
Little Girl, Agnes Just Reid, 436; The Creek, Luacine Clark 
Fox, 438; Scriptural Crossword Puzzle, 446. 

JhsL Qwsih. 

The Mormon Battalion Monument, pictured on the cover, stands on the grounds of 
the Utah State Capitol in Salt Lake City. The silhouette study against the 
background of a western sunset is by Jeano Orlando. 


(DoQfoiL Jinow— 

Where the headquarters of the new 

West German Mission are? 

Page 389 

What Church personality recently 
was honored by a distinguished 
American University? Page 387 

How mental work affects physical 
muscles? Page 388 

How youth may best serve its "own 
generation"? Page 392 

What is the "ideal" Book of Mor- 
mon Geography? Page 394 

Through what changes the Christian 
church passed after the death of 
Constantine? Page 396 

Under what circumstances Lorenzo 
Snow undertook his "tithing mis- 
sion" to St. George? Page 400 

What Mormon boy was a protege 
of Charles Dickens? Page 403 

Who wrote the Tabernacle Choir 
theme song? Page 404 

How the slavery issue precipitated 
a crisis in Utah? Page 406 

If camels are found on American 
deserts? Page 409 

Who was "Cayuga's Other Wise 
Man"? . Page 410 

What missionary methods are em- 
ployed in the Netherlands? 

Page 412 

What one college girl's reasons are 
for not smoking? Page 413 

At what international conferences 
President Clark is representing the 
United States? Page 415 

Who is promoting a state park at 
Nauvoo? Page 415 

What Mormon basketball team won 

a European championship? 

Page 415 

What books are recommended for 
summer reading? Page 420 

How "visual aids" have succeeded 
in the California Mission?_.Page 421 

What questions have arisen con- 
cerning Melchizedek Priesthood 
committees? Page 422 

What Priesthood social activities are 
recommended? Page 424 

How Brigham City has honored 
Brigham Young Page 435 


50 North Main Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Copyright 1938, by the Young Men's Mutual 
Improvement Association Corporation of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
All rights reserved. Subscription price, $2.00 
a year, in advance; 20c Single Copy. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, as second-class matter. Acceptance for 
mailing at special rate of postage provided 
for in section 1103, Act of October, 1917, 
authorized July 2, 1918. 

The Improvement Era is not responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts, but welcomes con- 
tributions. All manuscripts must be accompanied 
by sufficient postage for delivery and return. 


Bates College Confers 
Honorary Degree on 
Frank W. Asper 

Tabernacle Organist Called 
East to Receive Signal Honor 

"Crank W. Asper, Salt Lake Taber- 
nacle organist and one of the West's 
successful musicians, who has steadily 
won acclaim outside his home state, was 
called east in early June to have con- 
ferred upon him an honorary degree of 
Doctor of Music, by historic Bates 
College in Lewiston, Maine. Mr. Asper 
won further plaudits in his capacity as 
an artist when, on June 12, he played 
the dedicatory program on a new organ 
installed at the College. He was called 
across the continent to be the first 
artist to play this wonderful instrument 
in one of America's oldest and finest 

The new organ was presented to 
Bates College by Arthur Curtiss James, 
internationally known New York finan- 
cier and music patron. Bates College, 
founded in 1864, is one of America's 
foremost educational institutions and is 
well known for its debating teams. 
Robert Frost, poet; Paul Claudel, for- 
mer French Ambassador to the United 
States; and Mark Sullivan, political 
commentator, have received honorary 
degrees from this college. With all 
the east to honor, it remained for a 
western artist to be called to play the 

During a mission to Germany, be- 
cause of his interpretation and knowl- 
edge of the classics, Frank Asper was 
able to circulate freely and proclaim 
the Gospel to several opera stars, mem- 
bers of symphony orchestras, and some 
concert artists, and was invited to play 
for them, as well as being welcome at 
many prominent functions. After his 
mission, he studied in Berlin: piano' with 
Jonas, and theory with Klatte, and also 
played in an opera orchestra under 
Von Fielitz. 

After the outbreak of the World 
War, he returned to Salt Lake City, 
and, in 1915, gave up a large class of 
pupils to study in Boston because of 
the need he felt to further advance in 
the theoretical subjects, which he pur- 
sued under Elson; he also' studied organ 
under Humphrey at this time. Piano 
training was pursued under DeVoto 
and Buonamici. He was also engaged 
to train a boy choir in a suburb of Bos- 
ton, later relinquishing this for a post 
as organist on the fashionable south 
shore at Cohasset, in an historic church 
which was built before the Revolution. 
During the time he was teaching at 
the New England Conservatory of 
Music he did not neglect his Church 
duties, and was counselor in the Bos- 
ton Branch for four years. In 1920 
the newly-organized L. D. S. School of 
Music beckoned and he returned to 
Salt Lake City. 

Mr. Asper holds the distinction of 
being a "Fellow" in the American 






cowboy of 
1937. Yes, 
those are 
LEVI'S he's 

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man . . . like Champion Cowboy Bowman. It may 
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and wear. Champions, again, in giving you 
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LEVI STRAUSS & CO., Los Angeles, SAN FRANCISCO, Frankfort, Ind. 


Guild of Organists, and is also Dean 
of the Utah Chapter. He is one of the 
few western representatives ever in- 
vited to play at a convention of the 
American Guild of Organists, which he 
did on the large municipal organ at 
Memphis, winning great acclaim. He 
has played for many notables, among 
them, three presidents of the United 
States, and the Crown Prince of 
Sweden. Other places where he has 
appeared have been at the University 
of Illinois; University of Chicago; 
Carnegie Institute at Pittsburgh; at the 
large Lewis and Clark High School at 

Spokane, Washington; in Pueblo; and 
the Third Baptist Church of St. Louis. 
He was official organist at the Sesqui- 
Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia; 
played in St. Vincent's Church at Los 
Angeles, and many others. 




J Double Bed Choice (Double or Twins) 

$2.50 $3.00 $3." 

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£xpjb%uv£ JJtiL lAmvohAJL 


A dog can hear higher notes than 
*** man and there is good evidence 
that pheasants can hear distant gunfire 
when human ears cannot detect it, 


HP HE worm called Brubea protandrica 

A is male in autumn and winter, fe- 
male in spring, and neuter in summer. 

A new flourescent electric lamp has 
"*""* been announced with an efficiency 
200 times that of present-day filament 
lamps. It differs from ordinary lamps 
in that ultra-violet is converted to vis- 
ible light by a flourescent coating on 
the walls. 

Cheep shearing by chemicals is being 
^ performed in the Soviet Wool Lab- 
oratory. By giving single doses of 
thallium compounds the sheep shed 
their wool, leaving them naked as 
though they had been shorn. If the 
dose was small the fine wool came out, 
if larger both coarse and fine fibers 

■pOR each pound of vegetable matter 
■*- produced by a plant, on the aver- 
age of about 40 gallons of water are 


A silent piano and a silent violin have 
**"* been invented to be used in prac- 
ticing. The playing can be heard only 
by the pupil and teacher through ear- 

HPhe muscles in the arms and neck of 
■*• a person doing mental work get 
tenser and tenser as the work becomes 
more difficult, a scientist at the Uni- 
versity of Indiana found. 

Tn Peary Land at the north end of 
* Greenland, the most northerly land 
on earth, there are bees and butterflies 
in the rolling meadows of flowers and 

♦ ■ — 

/"^ontrary to popular belief, wolves 
^ don't attack and kill people, nor 
do they travel in hunting packs, except 
that cubs may travel with the parents 
for the first year. Vilhjalmur Stef- 
ansson and the U. S. Biological Survey 
have traced such accounts down and 
found them to be fictitious. 


"Decent research on the brain has 
A ^- disclosed two interesting things. 
Large portions of the important 
frontal lobes of the brain can be re- 

moved surgically without apparent 
damage to the intelligence. No signs 
of depression or loss of abstract be- 
havior were discovered in such pa- 
tients. The brain has a definite "heat 
center" that responds to heating by 
speeding up breathing, starting per- 
spiration and other means for cooling 
the body. Experiments with cats 
found this region to be partly on the 
underside of the front part of the brain, 
and partly on the underside of the mid- 


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WM. E. NELSON, Architect 



Chooses colorful Mountain Red Ruff Brick 
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Plumbing Installed by 


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Photo by George Strebet. 

dOuv Wadding QojuAnsu^ 

r^REARY day by dreary day, 

Jouncing, jolting, mile on mile, 
Erect she sat in her dusty gray, 
Fixed and stiff as her weary smile. 

•"Phey traveled light — it was their all- 
Tennyson's poems, a Bible, a few 
Patchwork quilts and a Paisley shawl, 
Copper kettle, and gown of blue; 

Che and her husband, this firm man, 
Eager and restless, fired with zeal, 
Joined a westward caravan, 

Stirred by the song of a creaking wheel. 

Youth and strength and a will to work; 

Deeply rooted, a trust in God, 
Trust to be tried in the mud and murk, 
Clinging fast to the Iron Rod. 

]" ONG he had labored in shop and at forge 

Fashioning felloe and axle with care, 
The need to be gone his daily scourge; 
To knit and sew, her womanly share. 

P)ay after day in the heat and the dust, 

Never a murmur or secret sigh, 
Fording a stream or facing a gust 

Of sifting sand as the wind whirled by. 

'M'ight after night in a bed on the ground, 

Weary body, too tired to rest; 
Sickness and death with its lonely mound, 

Hunger and thirst marked their way to the West. 

TThus was her wedding journey made 

Over desolate steep and plainland drear; 
Little new bride all unafraid, 
Partner indeed for a Pioneer! 

$(Vwl SabifL 





IT is a great joy to me, always, to meet with the young 
people. It is a very difficult matter for me to real- 
ize that I am what they commonly call a very old 
man. I believe my spirit is as youthful as it ever 
was. I enjoy mingling with youth; I enjoy playing 
with them; I enjoy the sports of youth. True, I cannot 
take as active a part in some of the athletic sports as I 
would like to, but I am very happy with youth, and 
to me the fact that the spirit apparently does not grow 
old is one of the evidences of the immortality of the 
soul. I remember reading of ex-President Adams being 
met one day by a friend who said: "How is President 
Adams today?" 

"Oh," he said, "President Adams was never better 
in his life, never younger, never in finer condition, but 
this house he is living in is becoming rather old and 
he is hoping for a better one in the near future." 

I hope to keep that spirit of youth. I hope to feel as 
much interested in the next ten years, which I hope to 
stay with you, in the Mutual Improvement cause as I 
have ever been. In fact, I believe that the Lord does 
grant unto us according to our desires, as recorded in 
the 29th chapter of the Book of Alma in the Book of 
Mormon, whether "good or evil, life or death, joy or 
remorse of conscience", that we are in very deed the 
architects of our own lives, so to speak, and not only 
the architects but the builders, and that if we have 
ambition to do more and to accomplish more, God gives 
us the ability through our diligence. I am a very firm 
believer in the teaching of James that "faith without 
works is dead, as the body without the spirit is dead," 
and of course we all know that the body is of no value 
to us when the spirit leaves. We retain the body only 
a few days until we bury it. 

Now what I desire and the ambition of my life is that 
from now until my end comes I can accomplish more 
year by year than I have accomplished in the past, 
for the reason that I should have and I believe I do 
have a greater comprehension of the duties and the 
responsibilities that rest upon me and that rest upon all 
of us than I had many years ago. I am grateful beyond 
expression that as the years come and go my love for 
this Gospel of Jesus Christ that has again been restored 
to the earth is stronger, and that there is a greater 
desire in my heart to labor for the spread of truth and 
the building up of the Church of Christ here upon the 
earth today than there has been ever before, and I 
believe that ought to be the ambition of each and every 
one of us. 

I believe unless we have ambition to accomplish 
things and to do things that we amount to but very 
little in the battle of life. I know of nothing at the 
present time that seems to me sadder than to find the 
number of our people who are losing the spirit of in- 
tegrity and devotion and ambition to do things. It 
seems to me all wrong. Every individual should have 
a desire to grow and increase in capacity and in ability 
to do things. Certainly by mere exertion of the will, 
by mere desire, we accomplish nothing; we must put 
with that desire the labor to accomplish the things we 

desire. I am sure that a young man who is perfectly 
satisfied with what he is doing, although he may be 
doing very little, and has no ambition to do more, will 
stand still; but I am convinced that each and every indi- 
vidual can improve from day to day, from year to year, 
and have greater capacity to do things as the years 
come and the years go. I believe in that with all my 

I rejoice in the splendid progress of our young peo- 
ple. I am sure there is no other place in the United 
States where a body of young people could be gathered 
together, such as I am facing here today, who would 
pledge themselves, as you have done, to live one of the 
laws of God for the benefit of mankind. I can think 
of no finer, more splendid statement against the men 
who are working today to destroy the vigor of body 
and mind of people by increasing the sale of liquor 
and tobacco than is contained in the Word of Wisdom. 
The Lord says: "I have warned you, and forewarn 
you, by giving unto you this word of wisdom," because 
of "evils and designs which do and will exist in the 
hearts of conspiring men in the last days." 

I read that in one of the eastern sections they refused 
to rent a hall to our Church for a Gold and Green Ball. 
They said they couldn't afford to have a lot of young 
people spoiling their napkins and table-cloths with their 
cigaret smoking. Our people told them there would 
be no cigarets, and to have several hundred young 
people, there without cigarets made an everlasting 
impression. I have heard many comments on the fine 
entertainment which our choir gave in honor of its 
former president, David A. Smith. To see this great 
ballroom of the Utah Hotel filled and the room adjoining 
it also out in the mezzanine floor, and not see a single 
cigaret, why it made a profound impression on the 
people! And I have attended other gatherings of the 
same kind. Each and every one of you, my dear young 
friends, carry on your shoulders the reputation of this 

Everyone of us has in our power to preach this 
Gospel, and to preach it not by word but by example. 
I sent out over six thousand copies of a little pamphlet 
during the Christmas holidays, and I found one of the 
items I published says it better than I can say it, viz: 

And now there is one more lesson for us to learn, the 
climax of all the rest; namely, to make a personal application 
to ourselves of everything which we know. Unless we 
master this lesson, and act on it, other lessons are virtually 
useless and thus robbed of their essential glory. The only 
living end or aim of everything we experience, of every truth 
we are taught, is the practical use we make of it for the 
enrichment of the soul, the attuning of the thoughts and 
actions, the exaltation of life. . . . When we do what we 
know, then first does it put on vital luster and become di- 
vinely orecious. — William R. Algers. 

The Gospel is true. May God help us to live it is my 
humble prayer and I ask it in the name of our Redeemer. 
Amen. — From President Grant's address at the opening 
session of the 43rc? Annual Conference of the Mutual 
Improvement Associations, in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake 
City, Friday morning, June 10, 1938. 




Of the Council of the Twelve 

Paul, the Apostle, speaking in 
Antioch, seat of Roman glory, 
summarized the life of David, 
great king of Israel, in eloquent, re- 
sounding words: 

For David, having served his own gen- 
eration by the will of God, fell on sleep 
and was laid unto his fathers. 

This was the highest praise that 
the learned Apostle could give to 
Israel's foremost king. It is today 
the greatest encomium that can be 
spoken of man or institution. It is 
also the most searching test of the 
worthiness of personal or institu- 
tional life. To serve one's "own 
generation by the will of God" re- 
mains the truest measure of life's 
value and the safest guide to human 

You who now leave halls of 
learning will be judged in life by 
Paul's test of service to your "own 
generation." If you heed the an- 
cient formula, you may safely ex- 
pect, in the midst of life's storms, to 
find honor, love, joy, and the inward 
satisfaction that "passeth all under- 

You may be few in number in a 
populous world filled with countless 
problems; you may be as voices in 
the wilderness; yet your voices must 
be heard in opposition to the dema- 
gogue, the charlatan, the office- 
seeker, and all who would distort 
truth for selfish ends; you must be 
as crusaders and reformers in the 
cause of righteousness. Your edu- 

cation has given you power beyond 
your fellows; positions of trust and 
influence will be yours. If you per- 
sistently and continuously, through- 
out your lives, speak for truth in the 
full spirit of understanding, victory 
will be yours. Men, in the end, pre- 
fer good to evil. I warn you only 
that all change and all reform come 
best by evolution rather than by 

The days to come will bring their 
own opportunities for service, but 
three great problems of today and 
tomorrow appear like great shadows 
upon the veil of the future, which 
you must help solve, if you would 
serve your "own generation." 

First, there is the call of educa- 
tion. You will be required to shape 
for more perfect service the power- 
ful instrument for man's improve- 
ment known as the system of public 
education. America has become a 
school-trained nation. From early 
childhood, into maturity, American 
children go to school. The home 
and the Church has retreated before 
the schoolmaster. Parents surrender 
their children to the school in their 
formative and adolescent years. 
The Church too often confines itself 
to Sunday guidance for people who 
live seven days a week. Our nation 
is being moulded by our system of 
public education. 

Since our schools possess such 
power, then, through them, neces- 
sary reforms and developments may 
largely be accomplished. A man is 
not likely to depart from the teach- 
ings of his youth. Personal and 
community ideals, with their eco- 

This article contains the message 
of the Baccalaureate sermon de- 
livered by Dr. Widtsoe to the 
U. S. A. C. graduating class on 
Sunday, June 5, 1938. In speaking 
of his text, "Serve Your Own Gen- 
eration," Dr. Widtsoe, on that oc- 
casion, added: "By this test w»e de- 
light today to honor the institution 
from which you are about to gradu- 
ate. Happily, during its half century 
of existence, from the first to the 
present board of trustees and faculty, 
from President Sanborn to President 
Peterson, the Utah State Agricultural 
College has diligently and intelli- 
gently served its 'own generation.* 
The future of the college, likewise, 
will be measured by its earnest and 
honest effort to serve its 'own gen- 

nomic, social, and religious implica- 
tions, should be set before our chil- 
dren, if American ways of thinking 
are to be preserved, and our great 
country shall fulfill its possible des- 
tiny for human good. The three 
R's must yield a part of their ancient 
field to the emotional and spiritual 
needs of man. When our schools 
become firm and fearless allies of 
home and Church, America will 
soon shake off the rags of vicious 
practices with which human selfish- 
ness has clothed her. 

American education cannot be 
made strong unless schools 
move nearer, in their instruction, to 
the daily needs of man. It is well to 
speak of culture; but culture is but 
a manner of life, touching all that a 
man does. The dignifying of the 
necessary tasks of life, in the light 
of the world's heritage of experience, 
is the better objective of schools, if 
we really desire a happy nation. 

The sisterhood of land grant col- 
leges has led out in this endeavor 
to the blessing of the land. How- 
ever, even they are threatened with 
a cultural paralysis, which rates pure 
book learning, acquiring the 
thoughts of the wise ones of the 
ages, as being all sufficient, and mak- 
ing unnecessary an intellectual and 
practical acquaintanceship with the 
work men must do daily for their 
bread. A body of men, eminent in 
the nation, has recently arisen to 
urge the educational return of 




(bo not $&£Ui. $0 jojuL to jomqiWi. Ga. 
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uplift, jul sxjwwjmixL bsdl&Jwuuni, amL 
in. jmsfwdL unpJwvsjmsLni, 

America to the pleasant ease of the 
slumbering, classical education. Hid- 
den within the plea is the dangerous 
and incorrect doctrine that educa- 
tion through the hand is inferior to 
that through the eye. Our near 
century of experience with school 
laboratories and shops refutes this 
claim. Thinly disguised, the plea 
is for an educational aristocracy in 
our free land. The course of history 
is evidence that no offering could be 
fraught with more evil in a world 
hungry for light. 

The assertion is made, with which 
we all agree, that men are not alike 
in their inborn powers. That pre- 
sents only a problem of school ar- 
rangement and administration. Let 
the schools organize and present 
existing knowledge to meet the 
needs of the variety of human gifts. 
But allow all people to advance as 
far as they can with their native 

Honor be to the few institutions 
which have resolutely set about to 
develop respect for physical toil 
along with mental effort; which 
have even divided the day or the 
week, so that a student may earn his 
way through college by skillful 
labor, and actually receive credit 
therefor! Such institutions may 
break a lesser academic regulation, 
but they conform to a higher human 
law. Above all, if we would have 
peace and plenty in our land, com- 
mand our schools, which are but our 
servants, from the first year to the 
last, to draw nearer to farm and 
shop, to store and home, as well as 
to office and courtroom — make pro- 
fessions of all necessary pursuits of 

In close association with this 
thought comes another. Out of what 
shrine of hidden and doubtful wis- 
dom came the plan, unfitting in our 
day, to allow children to roam about 

aimlessly, helplessly, freed from 
duty, during the three or more long 
months of summer vacation? If the 
school, with our consent, has invad- 
ed the earlier fields of home and 
church, why should it not carry on 
throughout the year with such free- 
dom as proper recreation demands? 
Boys and girls by untold thousands 
suffer in our land for want of suit- 
ably guided, productive occupation 
during the months of vacation. Ill- 
ness alone should justify idleness. 
This condition is probably the fault 
of the citizen taxpayers who have 
not instructed the schools properly 
in their duties. 

Another thought lingers. The 
love of truth must be fostergd if 
men are to travel the road to happy, 
useful life. Unless you have learned 
to love truth your college course has 
been in vain. Almost the prime pur- 
pose of college training is to enable 
men to distinguish between that 
which the powers of men have found 
to be true, and the inferences, 
changing with increasing knowl- 
edge, that are drawn from such facts 
of observation. In college halls, 
man's interpretations of observed 
facts are sometimes presented, by 
uninformed, biased or dishonest 
teachers, in the guise of established 
facts. That is the gravest kind of 
dishonesty. In the world of affairs 
this danger is ever present. A man 
or group of men may set up a series 
of dicta, unsupported or incompletely 
supported by facts, and build there- 
on governmental or commercial 
structures to the grief of all con- 
cerned. Men must cling to truth at 
whatever cost. That must be the 
constant, most important teaching 
of the schools. 

I cannot refrain from adding that, 
within school circles, the responsi- 
bility for needed educational 

changes rests upon the institutions 
of collegiate rank. They are the 
pacesetters for the high schools and 
elementary schools. 

Would you serve your genera- 
tion? Here, coming voters, speak- 
ers, writers, trustees of schools and 
colleges, lies a mighty opportunity 
to serve your "own generation," in 
directing and redirecting American 
education for greater American se»- 
vice and human good. 

The second problem which you 
must help solve in life is man's call 
for economic emancipation, a call 
heard around the world and stirring 
the nations to their foundations. 

You will be called upon to help 
provide permanent means for sup- 
plying every man born into the 
world, in return for his best efforts, 
the necessaries of life: food, cloth- 
ing and shelter as well as the com- 
mon luxuries of life. No longer can 
that duty be ignored; for every 
worthy man is entitled to these 
things. In that respect all men are 
or should be equal. 

During the few centuries of our 
modern civilization, the common 
man has been obliged to battle for 
freedom of thought and speech, and 
for political equality. These pre- 
cious possessions are now his. To- 
day we are in the midst of the com- 
mon man's battle for economic suffi- 
ciency. We cannot well serve our 
"own generation" unless we use our 
training to help secure greater eco- 
nomic security for all worthy men, 
and thereby win peace and content- 
ment for the whole world. As men 
find economic contentment, war- 
fare will vanish from the earth. The 
powers of our civilization must make 
more available for humankind the 
material resources of earth. Too 
many of our fellowmen suffer for 
want of food, clothing, and shelter. 
That does not bring about social 
welfare. The earth offers an 
abundance for the support of all. 
Wealth comes from the intelligent 
application of human labor to the 
natural resources of earth. You 
have been taught how this may be 
done. Your knowledge must be ap- 
plied to this problem for humanity's 
sake; then, many will call you bless- 
ed. In this way you can greatly 
serve your "own generation." I am 
convinced that the God of Heaven, 
a living Father, desires that the 
{Continued on page 444) 

Zarahemla/ What glorious 
thoughts are brought to the 
mind of any Latter-day Saint 
by the name of this great metropolis 
of the ancient Nephites. Here lived 
the rulers of the people of Nephi, 
from Mosiah to Mormon. From 
here Moroni and the brave young 
general, Teancum, went forth to 
fight the degenerate sons of Laman, 
led by the wicked Amalikiah. 
From the neighboring land of Jer- 
shon, Helaman led his two thou- 
sand "Little Sons" to aid the sorely 
beset Antipus. Here for six hun- 
dred years a great people lived, 
loved, fought their battles and built 
a great civilization. 

To any Latter-day Saint these 
stories are as familiar as if they 
were a part of our own history, yet 
the place of Zarahemla and its 
surrounding lands remain undeter- 
mined. What satisfaction if we 
could picture the Sidon as we do 
the Jordan, a definite part of the 
earth, could visualize the battles 
fought and the people who fought 
them in their proper settings. Teach- 
ers of the Book of Mormon know 
the difficulties of presenting to a 
group of students the missionary 
journeys of Alma and the Sons of 
Mosiah when they themselves have 
only a vague idea of the lands vis- 
ited, their distance from each other 
or the natural barriers encountered. 

It has often been said that little 
can be known of the geography of 
the Book of Mormon because of the 
great changes which took place at 
the time of the Crucifixion. Before 
accepting this theory, remember 
that while much of the record is a 
history of events which occurred 
before the meridian of time, the 
historian, Mormon, lived some four 
hundred years after that time. A 
careful study of the book shows that 
most of the references to travel or 
geography are phrased in his words, 
not those of the original authors. 
After several years of study the 
author is convinced that the Book 
of Mormon contains sufficient infor- 
mation for the student to construct 
a map of Zarahemla and its sur- 
rounding lands. 

As the River Sidon played such 
an important part in the history of 
the Nephites, even until the days of 
Mormon, and was one great physical 
feature of the land which remained 
unchanged during this period, it will, 





U)ithouL cdtsimpttinq^ to JoxxdjL IPul Aazr, 
o£ cudkwfL otL thsL pte&swi-dcu^ map. 
JthsL auihtfv hs/UL AuqqsLdiA. cl fea&ibJbL 
JojcJcrfiwL ofL namsUu aruL fdac&A- with- 
MApJZCt to SJOfdfL otPuUi, £Uu hsuvsurisudL 

A^any individual members of 
the Church, in private 
capacity, have expressed their 
views and their theories con- 
cerning Book of Mormon geog- 
raphy. Here is another view 
— representing merely the per- 
sonal beliefs of one student of 
the subject and not necessarily 
representing the views of the 
Church or its members gener- 
ally. But this presentation is 
unique in that it does not at- 
tempt to place the scene of ac- 
tion on the present-day map, 
but merely indicates the rela- 
tive positions of one place with 
respect to another, as inferred 
from a study of the text itself. 

if located, form a sort of base merid- 
ian for the construction of a map. 

In Alma 22:27 Mormon gives a 
description of the land ruled over 
by the king of the Lamanites in the 
year 90 B. C. He speaks of a "nar- 
row strip of wilderness, which ran 
from the sea east even to the sea 
west, and round about on the bor- 
ders ... of the wilderness which was 
on the north, by the land of Zara- 
hemla, through the borders of 
Manti, by the head of the river 
Sidon, running from the east to- 
wards the west — and thus were the 
Nephites and Lamanites divided." 
In this passage we learn three facts 
about the Sidon, that its headwaters 
are in a narrow strip of wilderness 

which runs from the sea on the east 
to the sea on the west, that the head 
of the Sidon is north of the Land 
of Nephi, and that the Land of 
Manti is near the wilderness in which 
the Sidon has its source. 

Reading from Alma 16:7 we find 
that Zoram and his sons (Nephites 
coming from Zarahemla) crossed 
the Sidon "with their armies, and 
marched away beyond the borders 
of Manti into the south wilderness, 
which was on the east side of the 
river Sidon." About 74 B. C. the 
great Nephi general, Moroni, fought 
a campaign in this region. Here he 
ambushed the Lamanites as describ- 
ed in Alma 43:25-44. Paying special 
attention to verses 31, 32 we read, 
"Therefore, he divided his army and 
brought a part over into the valley, 
and concealed them on the east, and 
on the south of the hill Riplah; and 
the remainder he concealed in the 
west valley, on the west of the river 
Sidon, and so down into the borders 
of the land Manti." (Read verses 
3 1 -42. ) From these passages we can 
be sure that near its head the Sidon 
flowed from south to north. 

That the Sidon still flowed from 
south to north near Zarahemla is 
shown by Alma 2:15: "The Amli- 
cites came upon the hill Amnihu, 
which was east of the river Sidon, 
which ran by the land of Zara- 
hemla." And in Alma 8:3 we read 
that Alma went from Zarahemla to 
the "Land of Melek, on the west of 
the river Sidon." 

Apparently the Sidon flowed into 
the sea on the north as Alma 3:3 


speaks of the bones of the slain 
Lamanites whose bodies were 
thrown into the river as being "in 
the depths of the sea." 

To begin our skeleton map it is 
necessary to consider the land of 
Nephi, which includes in its general 
term all of the lands held by the 
Lamanites in the first century B. C. 
Here the first Nephite city was built 
by Nephi the son of Lehi. Nephi 
5:6-17. From this city Mosiah 
went forth to discover the land of 
Zarahemla. In the first century 
B. C. it was ruled by the Lamanites 
and was the land to which the sons 
of Mosiah went to preach the Gos- 
pel. The extent of this Lamanite 
kingdom is outlined by Mormon in 
Alma 22:27, and we have learned 
that it was separated from Zara- 
hemla by a narrow strip of wilder- 
ness which ran east and west from 
sea to sea. "And the land of Nephi 
did run in a straight course from the 
east sea to the west." Alma 50:8. 

XTow we are presented with a 
unique situation: The Sidon 
running from south to north ends in 
a sea. The Land of Nephi running 
east and west runs from sea to sea. 
The narrow strip of wilderness di- 
vides the Land of Nephi from Zara- 
hemla, or the Nephite lands, and 
also runs from sea to sea, running 
east and west. If you will note this 
forms a T, with the Sidon as the 
stem and the Land of Nephi as the 
top bar. From this T and the east 
and west sea shores we can locate 
many of the ancient lands. 

The Land of Zarahemla was near 
the Sidon. In the year 322 A. D. 
the last wars of the Nephites began 
"in the borders of Zarahemla by the 
waters of Sidon." Mormon 1:10. 

About 81 B. C. Zoram and his 
sons left Zarahemla and "crossed 
over the river Sidon, with their 
armies, and marched away beyond 
the borders of Manti into the south 
wilderness, which was on the east 
side of the river Sidon." Alma 16: 
7. This passage together with Alma 
2:15-37 (pay particular attention to 
verses 15 and 27) show that Zara- 
hemla was on the west of the Sidon. 
They also fix Manti as on the east 
near the head of Sidon. 

Zarahemla was the center of the 
Nephite lands in the days of Moroni. 
In the year 62 B. C. Moroni wrote 
an epistle from the city of Mulek to 
Pahoran, who was then chief judge 
of Zarahemla, accusing him of neg- 
lecting to send reinforcements to the 
frontiers "because ye are in the heart 
of our country . . . surrounded by 
security." Alma 60:19. 








, n JSJS.'/S 



Alma z:36 






\Ju<Zka L«/Jf 

'• LAND OT AZv»as/:a6* 







A Zm a -5-osd 







AlTrta. 2Z:2& 


The above diagram shows the relationship of Book of Mormon lands to each 
other in the first century B. C. as developed in the accompanying article. In fitting 
this diagram to any map, allowance must be made for the fact that rivers, sea coasts, 
etc, which deviate several degrees from a meridian may be said to run North or South. 

It is suggested that the student try to trace the course of the following journeys 
or military campaigns on the above diagram. 

Alma 43:17-54, 44:22-24, 51:22-37, 52:1-40, 56:9-57, 62:14-38, 63:4-6; Helaman 
1:14-33; Mormon 1:6. (Note here that Zarahemla was in the Land Southward.) 

Many other lands and cities may be located by using the Book of Mormon index 
as a guide. 

No attempt is made here to suggest the location of any cities in the Land Northward. 

In the year 51 B. C. Coriantumr, 
a renegade Nephite, led a great 
Lamanite army "down to the land 
of Zarahemla." Helaman 1:17-18. 
After capturing Zarahemla he "did 
march forth with a large army, even 
towards the city of Bountiful; for it 
was his determination to go forth 
and cut his way through with the 
sword, that he might obtain the north 
parts of the land." Helaman 1:23. 
"But behold, this march of Corian- 
tumr through the center of the land 
gave Moronihah great advantage 
over them." Helaman 1:25. 

These verses establish the fact 
that Zarahemla was in the center of 
the Nephite lands, also that the city 

Bountiful was north of Zarahemla. 

The Land Bountiful was near the 
"small neck of land which divided 
the land southward from the land 
northward" and was inhabited by 
the Nephites "even from the east 
unto the west sea." Alma 22:29- 
33. Note here that verse 32 tells us 
that the "land of Nephi and the land 
of Zarahemla were nearly surround- 
ed by water." This use of the term 
"land of Zarahemla" apparently in- 
cludes not only the specific land sur- 
rounding the city of Zarahemla, but 
all Nephite lands of this period. 

The city of Bountiful was sep- 
arated from the city of Mulek by 
( Concluded on page 439 ) 

.,...,,....,.... ............. ... 


v. {RwfdcdwfL fiaptaauL bi^ 
(DobcdsL and, QmpsAmL £dtct 


Head of the Department of Modem Languages at 
the University of Utah, and a member of the Gen- 
eral Board of the Deseret Sunday School Union. 


'T'his people draweth nigh unto me with their 
mouth, and honoreth me with their lips; but 
their heart is far from me. 

"But in vain they do worship me, teaching for 
doctrines the commandments of men." 

—Matthew 15:8, 9. 


IN 359, Constantius called a gen- 
eral council to restore the peace 
of the church. The eastern bish- 
ops assembled at Seleucia and the 
western bishops at Rimini in Italy. A 
moderate Arian statement of faith, 
drawn up at the headquarters of the 
emperor at Sirmium, declared the 
Father and the Son to be similar 
in all things ( kata panta ) according 
to the scriptures, and the term ousia 
(substance) was rejected. Under 
pressure of the emperor, who had 
first caused the expression in all 
things to be dropped, the decision 
was accepted by the western bishops 
at Rimini. Then, Constantius, with 
threats and force, caused the west- 
ern bishops to sign the formula as 
modified by another council at Con- 
stantinople. Owing to division, the 
synod at Seleucia did not arrive at 
any real conclusion. However, it 
sent representatives to the emperor 
and these were compelled to accept 
the symbol of faith and, after it had 
been modified by the council of Con- 
stantinople (360), it was sent to 
the bishops everywhere for their 
signature under threats of exile. 
Jerome says, "The whole world 
groaned and was astonished to see 
itself Arian." 

Even the deposed Athanasian 
(Nicene creed) bishops now sub- 
scribed the Arian belief. 

Hosius, bishop of Cordova, for- 
merly the ecclesiastical advisor of 
Constantine and whose signature 

heads the list of those who sub- 
scribed the Nicene faith at the coun- 
cil of Nicea, "was induced by long 
imprisonment and the threats of the 
emperor ... to subscribe the Arian 
formula of the second council of 
Sirmium (357)." 

The banishment of Bishop Liber- 
ius of Rome occurred in 355 and 
the Arian Felix was elected, "by 
antichristian wickedness" as Athan- 
asius puts it, and ordained bishop of 

Bishop Liberius had stood with 
firmness for Athanasius and the 
Nicene faith, but he was unable to 
withstand banishment. In a letter to 
Constantius, Liberius writes: "You, 
in your justice and clemency, can 
decide whether it is right to assent 
to their (the Arian) judgment." 15 
Another letter of Bishop Liberius 
of Rome reads: 

Liberius, to his dearly beloved brethren, 
priests and fellow bishops of the East, 

... I did not defend Athanasius but, 
because my predecessor, Bishop Julius of 
honorable memory, had received him, I was 
afraid that I might be considered a traitor 
in some sort. But when, by God's will, I 
realized that you had been right in con- 
demning him, I straightway gave my assent 
to your judgment. ' And I delivered a let- 
ter concerning him to our brother Fortu- 
natianus to carry to the emperor Con- 
stantius. So now that Athanasius has been 
excluded from communion with all of us 
and his official letters are no longer to be 
accepted by me, I assert that I am in peace 
and harmony with you everyone and with 
all the bishops of the east and throughout 
the provinces. 

15 Letter in full in Shotwell and Loomis, 
of Peter, pp. 556-563. 

The See 


Moreover, you may be sure that I am 
professing the true faith in this letter, for 
our common Lord and brother, Demophilus, 
has deigned in his charity to expound to me 
your Catholic (Arian) faith, which was 
also discussed and expounded at Sirmium 
by many of our brethren and fellow bish- 
ops and adopted by all who were present. 
This I have gladly accepted and in no 
particular have I gainsaid it and to it I 
have declared my assent. This I follow 
and this I uphold. I confidendy believe 
that I may entreat your holiness, now that 
you behold me in hearty agreement with 
you, to put forth your efforts graciously 
in common council and zeal, that I may 
be released from banishment and return 
to the see which was once divinely en- 
trusted to me. 18 

A similar letter was sent to the 
Arian leaders: 

Liberius in exile to Ursacius, Valens 
and Germinius. 

Whereas I know you are sons of peace 
and love the concord and harmony of the 
Catholic church (now Arian), therefore, 
under no compulsion whatever, — as I call 
God to witness, — but for the sake of the 
blessing of peace and concord, which is 
preferable to martyrdom, I approach you 
with this letter, my lords and dearest breth- 
ren. I hereby inform your wisdom that 
I had condemned Athanasius, who was 
bishop of the Alexandrian church, before 
I wrote to the court of the holy emperor 
that I was sending a letter to the eastern 
bishops. And he has been cut off from the 
communion of the Roman church, as all 
the priesthood of the Roman church is 
witness. . . . Wherefore, I approach you 
with this letter and adjure you, by Al- 
mighty God and Christ Jesus His Son, our 
God and Lord, to go graciously to our most 
clement emperor, Constantius, and ask that 
for the blessing of peace and concord, in 
which his reverence always finds delight, 
he may order me to return to the church 
divinely committed to me, so that in his 
time the Roman church may not endure 
tribulation. By this letter you are to un- 
derstand fairly and honestly, dearest broth- 
ers, that I am at peace with all you bishops 
of the Catholic church (now Arian). 19 

However, in defense of Liberius, 
Athanasius, History of the Arians, 
41, says, "But Liberius gave way, 
after he had been two years in exile, 

16 Shotwell and Loomis, The See of Peter, pp. 581, 


and subscribed for fear of threat- 
ened death. Yet this shows only 
their violence and Liberius' hatred of 
heresy and support of Athanasius 
as long as he had a free choice. For 
that which men do under torture, 
against their original intention, 
ought not to be considered the will 
of these terrified persons but rather 
that of their tormentors." 16 

Yet Athanasius is not known to 
have raised any objection to the 
over-awing conduct of Constantine 
in the Nicene Council and the exer- 
cise of imperial force in behalf of 
the Nicene faith. The most famous 
leaders of both parties did not ob- 
ject to the use of force, provided 
they benefited by it, and the most 
famous fathers of the Athanasian 
party later defended its use." 
JQoth the Athanasian and the 
Arian parties considered them- 
selves as constituting the "catholic 
(that is, universal) church" and, in 
fact, whichever party had the might 
of the emperor behind it was the 
"catholic church." Had the emperor 
always been Arian, the power of 
the state would have been used in 
continuous support of Arianism, and 
Arianism would have been the or- 
thodox faith of the "catholic 
church," and Athanasianism or the 
Nicene creed would have been 

However, the final and decisive 
exercise of imperial might and au- 
thority was in support of the Athan- 
asian or Nicene faith. It was this 
exercise of imperial judgment, au- 
thority and power — not divine reve- 
lation nor guidance, unless indeed 
the use of violence was divinely 
guided though inconsistent — that 
determined the fundamental Chris- 
tian beliefs, or at least dogmas, for 
many centuries to come. 

For a period of eighteen years 
after the death of Constantius in 361 , 
the fortunes of the parties varied 
with the vacillating support of the 
emperors: for two years until his 
death the pagan emperor Julian tried 
to restore the pagan worship; then 
the Nicene faith was renewed in the 
west. "Gratian (375-378) did not 
show himself any less hostile to 
Arian heresy (in the west) than to 
paganism; and one could believe, 
after the tragic death of Valens ( the 
Arian emperor of the Eastern Em- 
pire) at the battle of Adrianople in 
378, that the cause of Arianism was 
lost forever. . . . 

"The two primitive forms of 

"Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. iii, 
p. 145: "Soon after (Augustine), Leo the Great, 
the first representative of consistent, exclusive, uni- 
versal papacy, advocated even the penalty of death 
for heresy." 

Arianism, the pure doctrine of Arius 
and the changing theories emitted by 
the Eusebian party, were effectively 
ruined forever." 18 

Throughout the fourth and fifth 
centuries, the emperors frequently 
decided in favor of one bishop as 
against another and approved or 
condemned doctrines: "In the edict 
of the year 543 that emperor (Jus- 
tinian ) condemned nine of Origen's 
propositions, and added his name to 
the list of heretics who were anathe- 
matized by all bishops and abbots at 
the time of their installation. In this 
wise Origen was numbered among 
such heretics as Sabellius, Arius, and 
others. . . . 

"After the decree condemning 
Origen and his writings had been 
published, the authorities immedi- 
ately proceeded to put it into execu- 
tion (by force)." 18 

18 Mourret, Les Peres de I'Egtise, p. 201. 

19 Funk, A Manual of Church History, p. 154. 

Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. iii, p. 

139: "In the ante-Nicene age, heresy and schism 
. . . were met only in a moral way, by word and 
writing, and were punished with excommunication 
from the rights of the church. Justin Martyr, Ter- 
tullian, and even Lacantantius were the first advocates 
of the principle of freedom of conscience, and main- 
tained, against the heathen, that religion was essen- 
tially a matter of free will, and could be promoted 
only by instruction and persuasion, not by outward 
force. All they say against the persecution of 
Christians by the heathen applies in full to the 
persecution of heretics by the church. After the 
Nicene age all departures from the reigning state- 
church faith were not only abhorred and excommuni- 
cated as religious errors, but were treated also as 
crimes against the Christian state, and hence were 
punished with civil penalties; at first with deposition, 
banishment, confiscation, and, after Theodosius, even 
with death." See Just. Mart. Apol. i. 2, 4, 12; 
Tectull, Apolog. c. 24, 28. 

Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. iii, 
p. 134: "The emperors after Constantine (as the 
popes after them) summoned the general councils, 
bore the necessary expenses, presided in the councils 
through commissions, gave to the decisions in doctrine 
and discipline the force of law for the whole Roman 
empire, and maintained them by their authority. The 
emperors nominated or confirmed the most influential 
metropolitans and patriarchs. They took part in all 
theological disputes. . . . They protected orthodoxy 
and punished heresy with the arm of power. Often, 
however, they took the heretical side, and banished 
orthodox bishops from their sees." 

Funk-Perciballi (Catholic), Manual of Church His- 
tory, 1, p. 198: "With regard to the constitution 
of the General Synods, it was the Emperor who called 
them together, and this corresponds with their char- 
acter as Synods of the Empire . . . and as the Em- 

From 379-395 Theodosius the 
Great, though, except for three 
years, not sole ruler, exercised the 
real power in both east and west. 
Like all western emperors, he was 
Athanasian; and he was the first em- 
peror to be baptized in the Nicene 
faith. He enacted more rigid pen- 
alties against paganism and against 
all non-Athanasian Christian sects, 
henceforth termed heresies. "Soon 
after his baptism, 380, he issued, in 
connection with his weak co-em- 
perors, Gratian and Valentinian II., 
to the inhabitants of Constantinople, 
then the chief seat of Arianism, the 
following edict: 

We, the three emperors, will, that all 
our subjects adhere to the religion which 
was taught by St. Peter to the Romans, 
which has been faithfully preserved by tra- 
dition, and which is now professed by the 
pontiff Damascus of Rome, and Peter, bishop 
of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. 
According to the institution of the apostles 
and the doctrine of the gospel, let us believe 
in the one Godhead of the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost, of equal majesty in 
the Holy Trinity, We order that the ad- 
herents of this faith be called Catholic 
Christians; we brand all the senseless fol- 
lowers of other religions with the infamous 
name of heretics, and forbid their conven- 
ticles assuming the name of churches. Be- 
sides the condemnation of divine justice, 
they must expect the heavy penalties which 
our authority guided by heavenly wisdom, 
shall think proper to inflict. Cod. Theod. 
xvi, 1, 2. 

In the course of fifteen years this 

emperor issued at least fifteen penal 

(Continued on page 437) 

peror convened the assembly, so, either in person or 
by means of commissioners, he maintained the public 
order. On account of the popular excitement during 
such sessions, this was not merely desirable, but 
absolutely necessary. At their close the Emperor 
ratified the Synodical canons, imparting to them in 
this way a legal force. ... In no General Council 
of this period were the Popes ever present in person. 
. . . By the votes of their Legates the Popes consented 
to the decrees . . , the Imperial ratification imme- 
diately following the formularization of the canons 
and the closure of the Synod, and therefore before 
any further confirmation from the Pope could have 
been obtained; whereas on the theory of subsequent 
Papal approbation the Papal confirmation would neces- 
sarily have preceded that of the Emperor." 






Porter and Peter Hohecson, two 
marriageable and very-much-in-love young 
people of a rural Mormon community, 
found themselves anticipating "their spring" 
— the spring in which they, with others 
of their friends, had decided to go to the 
Temple to be married at June Conference 
time. But seemingly poor agricultural 
prospects and accumulated debt caused 
Peter, a high-principled and cautious 
young man, to postpone the marriage un- 
til "better times." Questioning his motives 
and his wisdom, and in the anger of her 
disappointment, Nancy impulsively served 
notice on her betrothed that the "post- 
ponement" would be permanent and the 
"engagement was off." The embarrass- 
ment was intensified by the fact that 
two couples of "their crowd," Mark and 
Phyllis, and Lynn and Vera, who were 
apparently less economically prepared for 
marriage, decided to go through with their 
plans notwithstanding. And so these two 
parted, with hopes postponed — or aban- 
doned. Living in a discouraged home with 
a chronically and seriously ill father, dis- 
couraged younger brothers, and a work- 
worn mother, who held tenaciously to prin- 
ciples and ideals, Nancy became rebellious 
and determined to better her situation. 
Through a chain of favorable circumstances, 
she finally secured a temporary job as 
commissary-keeper of a huge ranching op- 
eration in a nearby section of the country. 
Reid Wood, young, impatient, city-bred 
son of the ranch owner-operator, called to 
take her to her new assignment. The trip 
was made; the job was reached. There 
was something about Reid Wood that she 
wanted to remember. There was something 
about Peter Holverson that she couldn't 
forget: There was some resentment be- 
tween Reid Wood and his father that she 
couldn't understand. And so she found 
herself among cross-currents with a job 
on her hands and heavy thoughts in her 
mind. With the passing days she found 
herself liking her job and her surround- 
ings, and found herself drawing near to the 
kindly inner nature of her employer, father 
Ben Wood — and found her thoughts often 
drifting to his restless son, Reid, with whom 
she rode and talked, learning something of 
the cause of his restless discontent. A 
serious accident to Mr. Ben Wood put his 
son Reid in charge of the ranching opera- 
tion, under which responsibility he showed 
some signs of commendable leadership and 
some signs of possessive arrogance. Nancy 
soon learned that her former sweetheart, 
Peter Holverson, was under serious financial 
obligation to the Woods — and that young 
Wood intended to force payment. The 
intrusion of a presumptuous nurse. Miss 
Meade, employed to care for Mr. Wood, 
further complicated an already difficult 


Chapter Six 


.he next week was one 
of the hardest Nancy ever spent, and 
the loneliest. On his return from 
Blaine the day after Peter's visit to 
the ranch Reid had pointedly ignored 
her. It was evident he sensed what 
the letter to the bank had meant. 
Was it anything to do with her if 
Mr. Wood had made it possible for 
Pete to borrow the money to pay his 
son? Was she at fault if his victory 
were not a victory after all? Ap- 
parently he thought so. He pointed- 
ly courted Miss Meade's attention 
and Nancy was once again just the 
book-keeper. Not that she minded 
that, she told herself; but she had 
nearly given up her position because 
of that letter and Pete was as indif- 
ferent as a stranger would have 
been. He had not come back as 
he had promised nor had he sent 
any word. Her knowledge of the 
outcome of the affair was mostly 
guesswork gleaned from Reid's at- 
titude and some loud words she had 
heard him shout at his father. Then 
one day Mr. Wood had spoken to 

"Say, young lady, did you mail 
that letter I wrote?*' 

"Reid mailed it. He went to town 
that morning." 

"Huh. Seems I can't even write 
to my bank without my own son get- 
ting suspicious. Guess I know my 
own business." He looked sternly 
at her as if defying her thought. 

One Sunday Nancy was sitting on 
the lawn reading. Miss Meade and 
Reid Wood had gone away horse- 
back. Mrs. Chris was in Blaine 
with her husband, and Mr. Wood 
was supposed to be sleeping. There 
was a humming undertone of sum- 
mer in the air about her. From the 
fields came the faintly rhythmic 
clicking of mowing machines. Even 
on Sunday the work went on here. 
She let her book drop. Why must 
she be alone? This kind of weather 
was meant to be shared, not endured. 

She thought of the radio but that 
might disturb the sleeping man. She 
would have liked to go in the field 
and drive one of the mowing ma- 
chines. That, too, was taboo. Life 
had become more complicated these 
last two weeks. As if in answer to 
her wish there came to her ears a 
short, impudent blast from an auto- 
mobile horn. She looked up ex- 

"It's the crowd!" She dropped her 
book and sprang to her feet. By the 
time Lynn had stopped the car she 
was there to open the door for them. 
They greeted her with an affection 
born of years of intimacy. 

"You darling." Vera held her at 
arm's length. "You're positively 
beautiful. Getting away has done 
something to you. If Hans Peter 
Holverson could only see you now." 

"Why didn't you bring him?" 

"We intended to but he was not 
at Sunday School and we came di- 
rectly from there." 

"Then you have not eaten?" 

"Yes. We have," Phyllis told 
her. "We stopped at our place and 


Vera had dropped to the lawn. 
"This is heavenly," she said and 
the others sat beside her. "We 
thought," she continued to Nancy, 
"that Pete had already come over 

"We're missing you," Phyllis was 
studying her closely. "You didn't 
mean what you said Easter Sunday, 
did you? About you and Pete, I 

"Certainly she meant it," Vera 

"Tell me about your trip." Nancy 
turned the talk from herself. "This 
is the first time I have seen you 
since you were married." 

V ERA launched into a 
lively description of the sights they 
had seen, the fun they had had, with 
a vivid account of a flat tire and 
the length of time it had taken the 
boys to fix it. All in all it had been 
a very satisfactory trip. "The only 
fly in the ointment," she ended, "was 
having to merely look at all the per- 
fectly gorgeous dresses. I tried on 
at least a thousand." 

"You could get just as nice ones 
in Blaine," Phyllis reminded her. 

"But that is different." 

"How is it they have water 
enough over here?" Lynn asked sud- 
denly. "I like the looks of these 
fields and this valley. It has been 



two or three years since I was over 

"They haven't. The men say they 
will be a hundred tons of hay short. 
Mr. Wood has a reservoir of his own 
in the hills back of here." 

"I've got to get out somewhere," 
Lynn went on. "There isn't land 
enough on our place for Dad and 
all us boys. I'd like — -" 

"Have you really decided that?" 
his wife turned her head and looked 
pointedly at him. 

"Yep." Lynn rose and spoke to 
Mark. "Let's look around." 

"Okay." Mark rose lazily. 

Vera watched their retreating fig- 
ures. "It is a good thing he has 
come to his senses." 


To their dismay brittle Vera burst 
into tears. Nancy put her arms about 
the shaking shoulders. "Don't cry." 

The girl shook herself and sat up 
determinedly. "What a laugh. The 

flutterly little Vic being sick of mar- 
ried life." 

"Vera." Constant Phyllis was 

"Oh, don't be so righteous, Phil. 
I'm sick of living in someone else's 
house. What do we get married for 
if it isn't to have a home of our 

"But you were anxious — " 

"Don't rub it in." Her voice 
turned wavery. "I've worked on 
that woman-killing farm until I never 
want to hear of work again." 

"And I worry about the absence 
of work." 

"What do you mean?" Nancy de- 
manded. "You haven't lost your — " 

"No. But Mark hasn't any work." 

They fell silent. Marrying had 
solved some problems and created 
others. Perhaps life, after all, was 
a succession of problems to be 

"How are things over home?" 

"Like they always are. Out your 
way it is terrible. We're leaving." 

"What do you mean?" 

"Exactly what I said. It's the 
parting of the ways for us and the 
farm. Why people can be stupid 
enough to stay on one is beyond me. 
Lynn doesn't know it yet but we are 

"But — " Nancy began. 

"I know all the reasons, darling. 
I hear them every hour of the day. 
But if there is anything more un- 
certain about a pay check than there 
is about the weather you tell me." 

"I think—" 

"I know that one, too. On a farm 
you always have something to eat — 
providing the woman hoes the gar- 
den two or three hours a day. Well, 
I never was keen about eating. I'd 
sooner have a bath tub. I'd as soon 
worry about little bills as big ones. 
Of course, a place like this one 
would be different. You're crazy, 
Nancy, if you ever leave it." 

"What do you mean?" 
"Isn't there an unattached male 
around here?" 
"Vera, please." 

"My, my, how modest we are 
these days. You fish. Any man 
will be lucky to get you." 

"But there is Pete," Phyllis cried. 

"Honestly, Phyl, you are too 
loyal to be true. If Nancy must 
choose between two evils why not 
take the comfortable one." 

"If you are so keen about money," 
Nancy asked her, "why did you 
marry Lynn?" 

The black eyes scowled. "Don't 
get personal. I am telling you what 
to do." They all laughed and after 
that they felt better. 

iNlANCY had brought them 
sandwiches and a cold drink and 
they were preparing to leave when 
next Nancy remembered Phyl's re- 
mark about work. 

"Mark," she said. "They want 
another steady man here. I heard 
the cook telling about it this morn- 

"That would be a break," Lynn 
turned to him. "Why don't you 

"I will. I'll come over the first 
thing in the morning." 

Phyllis put her hand on his arm. 
"Shouldn't you see about it now?" 

"But they told us out yonder the 
boss was gone." 

"We'll wait." Lynn wasn't going 
to let Mark miss his chance for 
work. "Let's ride up to the head 
of the valley. Come on." 

Nancy hesitated. "I will if Mr. 
Wood is asleep." She went to his 
door and looked in. Coming back 
she told them, "Get in the car. I'll 
be with you in a moment." She went 
back to the kitchen by the com- 
missary. "Now," she said when she 
was in the car with them, "I can 
go in peace. Jim says he will listen 
for Mr. Wood. But the nurse 
should be back before long." She 
sat in the back with Mark and 

As they neared the head of the 
valley the vegetation seemed greener 
and more inviting, though every- 
where, as on Big Smokey, there 
were evidences of the lack of rain. 
Lynn drove slowly. He was watch- 
ing the fields on both sides of the 

"Don't I wish I could have had 
the chance these men had when they 
came to this valley." 

"What do you mean chance?" his 
wife demanded. "It looks like a 
dumb place to me." 

"I mean the chance to take up a 
homestead with free range on all 
sides. No wonder Mr. Wood made 
a fortune." 

"Some of them haven't done so 
well," Mark said, as they passed a 
long, low log cabin that was surely 
a derelict of the past. 

(Continued on page 442) 




Of the Church Historian' s Office 

lt)oA. not ihsL wjcu^ jd$L msttL 

HPhe one-hundredth anniversary of 
the revelation on tithing given July 
8, 1838, recalls Lorenzo Snow's di- 
vinely directed mission to> St. George 
in the late nineties which pointed the 
way for the Church and its people out 
of financial bondage. 




Lorenzo Snow was inhis eighty- 
fifth year when President Wil- 
ford Woodruff died. Men 
usually seek retirement long before 
they reach this advanced age. They 
rarely welcome burdens of responsi- 
bility so late in life. It was gener- 
ally understood, both by the Latter- 
day Saints and by non-members of 
the Church, that Lorenzo Snow, 
who was then president of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve Apostles, would be 
the successor to President Wood- 
ruff. However, there were some 
who believed, at the time, that he 
would not accept this position. 

The responsibilities of Church 
leadership were very great. A com- 
bination of circumstances had so 
involved the Church, politically and 
financially, that embarrassment and 
distress faced the people. Great 
problems awaited solution. Unusual 
leadership was required. The situ- 
ation demanded the greatest energy 
and strength. Was Lorenzo Snow 
equal to it? Many years had passed 
since his participation in financial 
affairs. He had not recently been 
identified with large business enter- 
prises. His entire time was occupied 
in temple work, and he was rather 
inclined to spiritual than to business 

President Snow, after his call to 
the Presidency, humbly admitted 
that he did not know just what he 
would do; but he was confident that 
the Lord would show him, and he 
placed such dependence upon the 
promptings of God's spirit, and was 
so sure that he would follow those 
instructions that he said: "My ad- 
ministration will not be known as 



were begun 
Court. All 
Church was 

mine, but as God's administration 
through me." 

The day after President John 
Taylor's funeral, proceedings for the 
confiscation of Church property 
in the United States 
the property of the 
seized and for nearly 
ten years tedious and expensive liti- 
gation continued. Then, too, for sev- 
eral years the General Authorities 
had been compelled, by prosecution 
under the Edmunds-Tucker law, to 
remain from home. Therefore, dur- 
ing this period, the business inter- 
ests of the Church suffered greatly. 

These are but two of the several 
contributing causes which brought 
about serious financial distress. In- 

stead of the Latter-day Saints being 
moneylenders they had tended to 
become "hewers of wood and draw- 
ers of water." They were truly in 
bondage; the heavy yoke of indebt- 
edness was fastened about their 
necks. Under present changed 
conditions it is difficult to realize 
fully the humiliating financial posi- 
tion which the Church occupied at 
that time. Hundreds of thousands 
of dollars in past-due obligations 
were presented for payment and 
could not be met. I well remember 
my father's approaching his chief 
clerk, James Jack, with the words: 
"Brother Jack, we must raise some 
money. Go through all the secur- 
ities we have and see if you cannot 



find something that we can sell to 
raise some money." 

"Because of the great number of 
creditors who presented their de- 
mands, and because of the vast 
amount of indebtedness, father often 
referred to the conditions as "the 
bottomless pit," and "the unfathom- 
able deep." Much of this indebted- 
ness, which aggregated about two 
millions of dollars, was drawing ten 
per cent interest. 

The first step President Snow 
took in Church finances was to issue 
a million dollars in six per cent 
bonds, thus not only greatly reduc- 
ing the interest rate, but removing, 
temporarily, the immediate demand 
of creditors. However, this did not 
decrease the indebtedness of the 
Church — it simply postponed final 
payment. How was this tremendous 
obligation, which had been accumu- 
lating for many years, to be paid? 

One prominent business man pre- 
sented a plan to solicit contributions 
from the entire Church membership. 
He suggested a One Thousand 
Dollar Club to include all who would 
contribute one thousand dollars 
each, a Five Hundred Dollar Club, 
etc.; but President Snow shook his 
head and said: "No, that is not the 
Lord's plan." The Lord had not yet 
shown his servant just how the 
problem was to be solved, but he re- 
vealed the plan a little later. 

One morning my father said he 
was going to St. George in Southern 
Utah. I was much surprised at the 
thought of his making this long and 
hard trip. Mother expressed con- 
siderable surprise, but asked no 

Upon entering the President's of- 

fice, father informed Secretary 
George F. Gibbs of the contem- 
plated trip to St. George. Brother 
Gibbs at once asked how soon Pres- 
ident Snow expected to leave and 
who would be in the party. The 
reply was that he would leave just 
as soon as arrangements could be 
made, and that he would take as 
many of the General Authorities as 
could be spared from the important 
work at home. 

All necessary arrangements were 
made, teams and carriages were sent 
ahead to Modena, the terminus at 
that time of the Salt Lake Route, and 
on Monday afternoon, May 15, 
1899, the following party left Salt 
Lake City in the private Pullman 
sleeper "Montana," the first Pull- 
man car over the Salt Lake Route, 
tendered to President Snow by Mr. 
Bancroft of the Oregon Short Line: 
President Lorenzo Snow and wife, 
Minnie J. Snow, President Joseph 
F. Smith and wife, Alice K. Smith; 
President Franklin D. Richards and 
wife, Jane S. Richards; Elder Fran- 
cis M. Lyman (who joined the party 
at Provo) and wife; Elder Owen 
Woodruff and wife; Presiding 
Bishop William B. Preston; W. B. 
Dougall; President Seymour B. 
Young, Arthur Winter, Race Whit- 
ney, reporter for the Salt Lake Her- 
ald, and the writer, reporting for the 
Deseret News. Others were with 
the party during part of the trip, but 
the above are all who made the en- 
tire journey, only three of whom are 
now living, Elder Arthur Winter, 
Alice K. Smith, and the writer. 

The party reached Modena early 
the next morning, Tuesday, May 
16, and started on the long, rough, 
and rocky road to St. George, nearly 
seventy miles distant. The roads 
were extremely rough and the trip 
was very trying on all the members 
of the party. The distance from 
Salt Lake City to St. George, which 


was made in 26 hours, had never be- 
fore been traveled in so short a time. 
There were twelve conveyances in 
the party, and the drive, by team, 
from Modena to St. George was 
made in nine hours. 

President Snow stood the trip 
exceptionally well, but was very 
tired on reaching St. George. He 
was at once taken to the home of 
President Daniel D. McArthur for 
entertainment during the visit. Feel- 
ing the need of rest he decided to re- 
tire early. He entered the room; 
mother followed him, and I followed 
her. As I closed the door and 
turned towards father, I noticed that 
he was very weak and hardly able 
to walk. I hurried to his side and 
assisted him to a couch. Just as he 
reached the couch, he fainted. I 
quickly got some water; we rubbed 
it on his forehead and wrists and af- 
ter a few moments he regained con- 
sciousness, opened his eyes and 
looked about the room. He closed 
his eyes again and we knew that he 
was resting. Not wishing to disturb 
him, we remained quiet, not speaking 
a word, although we were very much 
worried about his condition. 

A fter about fifteen or twenty min- 
utes father got up from the 
couch and began walking up and 
down the room. He had the most 
painful and anxious expression on 
his face that I had ever seen, and he 
must have been going through in- 
tense mental suffering. After pac- 
ing up and down the floor several 
times, he commenced talking aloud 
as follows: "Why have I come to 
St. George, and why have I brought 
so many of the Church authorities, 
when we are so much needed at 
home to look after the important af- 
fairs of the Church? Haven't I made 
a mistake? Why have I come here?" 
When the Lord instructed his 
servant to go to St. George the pur- 
(Continued on page 439) 







.he one-room school had 
been dismissed for the day. Martha 
Kinney patiently listened to her pu- 
pils rehearse their Flag Day recita- 
tions and sing the familiar patriotic 
songs. Finally it came time for little 
Emily to say her piece. Lovingly 
the girl grasped the weather-beaten 
school flag in her hands and began, 
"Red is for courage . . ." 

"That flag is pretty old and torn, 
ain't it?" observed Emily's younger 
sister Susie. 

"Yes, it is," the teacher agreed 
thoughtfully, "but still it is our coun- 
try's emblem." 

In her heart Miss Kinney wished 
she herself had the price of the new 
flag which the Board really could not 
afford. Ever since she had come to 
the hill country to teach, she had 
known nothing but scrimp and save, 
her small salary always long over- 
due. It was as if Lone Ridge 
school, like the sparse, worn-out 
land which supported it, begrudged 
the few dollars required to give its 
children even the rudiments of an 

Emily still stood regarding the 
school flag silently. 

"Are you a-thinkin' of that new 
dress you're aimin' to wear at the 
exercises, Emily?" teased one of the 

Emily flushed. Her reply was 
quickly forgotten when young Asa 
burst breathlessly into the school 

"Have you heard the news?" he 
shouted, knowing only too well that 
no one had. "Well, the President's 
wife is comin' to Lone Ridge to see 
Eagle Dam! The man that tends 
the railroad crossin' says her train 
stops here for certain — tomorrow!" 

"And tomorrow's Flag Day!" 
Miss Kinney reminded the children 
happily. "The First Lady may ask 
to see our school. She usually does, 
I understand, whenever her time per- 

"But that old flag . . ." persisted 
little Susie. 

"Couldn't we make a new flag?" 
suggested Emily timidly. "It ain't 
fittin' to let the First Lady see such 
an old one!" 

"A flour sack would do for the 
stars and white stripes," suggested 
a practical youngster named Amy. 
"My ma'll let me bring one." 

"My ma's got a blue curtain that 
she might let me have," added a fair- 
haired girl named Lucy. 

"But what about red?" asked Asa. 

"Yes, what about red?" echoed 
the others. 

"Nobody's got red," spoke up 
Lucy emphatically. "Nobody buys 
red. It runs somethin' awful in the 

"You gotta have red," insisted 

"Sure, you gotta have red," re- 
peated Amy. "Doesn't Emily's piece 
say, 'Red is for Courage'?" 

The children left for home with 
the question of red still unsettled. 
Emily and her sister were the last to 
go. At the door Emily whispered 

"Maybe I can get the red stuff, 
Miss Kinney." 

Susie overheard, and eyed her 

sister in blank astonishment. "Emily! 

You ain't a-gonna . . . You could- 

> ii 

n t. . . . 

"You come along home, Sis," in- 

terrupted Emily sharply. And Susie, 
still blank and bewildered, took her 
sister's hand. 

That evening to Miss Kinney's 
humble boarding-place came Lucy 
with the blue curtain, Amy with the 
flour sack, and — marvel of marvels 
— Emily with seven strips of bright 
red calico! 

"Seven's right, ain't it, Miss Kin- 
ney?" asked Emily brightly. "When 
I cut 'em I kept a-sayin' over the 
song we'll sing tomorrow, 'Six white 
stripes and seven pretty red ones.' ' 

"Emily, does your mother know 
you brought these?" asked Miss 
Kinney anxiously. 

"Yes, ma'am," honest Emily re- 
plied. "And she says I can help you 
sew a spell if you want me to." 

/\t dawn the next day all 
Lone Ridge was agog. The Pres- 
ident's wife was due at noon. Al- 
ready the local people thronged the 

The hours dragged on. Babies 
cried fretfully and their silent elders 
shifted uneasily. Then all at once 
she was there among them, smiling 
and nodding her friendly greeting. 

The officials from Eagle Dam 
fussily escorted her on her tour of 
inspection. Then straight to the 
schoolhouse she was led by the 
eager children, who sang the na- 
tional anthem more lustily than they 
had ever sung before. 

An awkward hush followed, until 
the honored guest took her seat on 
the rickety platform. Then, one by 
one, the children sang their songs 
and spoke their pieces. 

At last came Emily's turn. She 
advanced gingerly to the front, 
proudly bearing before her a gleam- 
ing new flag. 

The children gasped. The First 
Lady smiled her encouragement. 
Triumphantly Emily touched a bril- 
liant red stripe and began: 

"Red is for courage." 

She spoke the last line in a clear, 
ringing voice. The place thundered 
with applause. The First Lady her- 
self stood up and kissed the child's 
(Concluded on page 438) 



UJjUUcwl dlahhi&ML Qulmsui, 
Juwiv/l aha a&. "(BiUbf iPuL 


IN his tiny room in a fraternal 
home in northern California, sits 

a white-haired, pink-cheeked old 
man — William Harrison Culmer. 
He speaks of other days, not as 
many old men babble of the past, 
but with a virility of expression, a 
youthful flash of humor, and an 
amazing accuracy for detail. He 
has been a maker of history, and 
although his days of physical ac- 
tivity are past, he is still alert and 
keenly interested in present-day 
world events. 

In 1852, Mr. Culmer was born 
on the Bay of Naples aboard a three- 
masted schooner of which his father 
was the skipper. The land home of 
the family was within a stone's 
throw of the great London docks, in 
quarters over the Hagenback Zoo. 
To these humble rooms came such 
men as Charles Dickens, the novel- 
ist, and Oscar B. Young, the sixth 
son of Brigham Young. 

As a boy, Culmer was better 
known as "Billy the Cartwheeler," 
the title having been given him as 
the result of a competitive contest 
in the Crystal Palace, London, be- 
cause of his ability to turn one hun- 
dred consecutive cartwheels, which 
exceeded the performance of any 
other boy in England. The iron 
strength of his wrists to this day 
testifies to his prowess. 

His autobiography, now in the 
hands of a London publisher, is en- 
titled "Billy the Cartwheeler," con- 
taining reminiscences of Charles 
Dickens and the London Slums of 
his day, "by the last of the Dickens' 

His impish personality and pre- 
cociousness easily won him promi- 
nence. He stood at the head of his 
class of two hundred seventy boys 
in the Ragged School which he at- 
tended, and, when the World's Fair 
of 1862 was staged at the Crystal 

Palace, he headed one of the groups 
of the 25,000 boys who made up the 
chorus. Mr. Dickens was one of 
the patrons of the Fair, and it was 
there that he first came in contact 
with "Billy the Cartwheeler." 

Arriving early at rehearsal one 
day, Dickens encountered Billy turn- 
ing his cartwheels down the cor- 
ridor. Finding himself with an audi- 
ence, the child quickly left off cart- 
wheeling, and stood innocently gaz- 
ing at a great oil painting on the 
wall. Noticing the resemblance be- 
tween the picture and the man who 
had approached (for the portrait 
truly was of Dickens ) , the boy cov- 
ered his embarrassment by plunging 
into conversation. Culmer well 
knew his Oliver Twist, which was 
then being hawked on the street 
corners each Saturday noon, at one 
penny each installment of the serial. 

"It's a very good picture of you, 
Mr. Dickens, and I know the exact 
chimney where Bill Sykes hung." 

Staggered by hearing the boy say 
he knew the exact location of some- 
thing which, of course, never existed, 
he asked: "Where did you say that 

"Do you know where the Gray- 
hound Bridge is, Sir?" continued 

"Indeed, yes," was the reply. 

"Well, Sir, do you know the big 
redbrick house on the other side of 
the race?" 


"And the big chimney on top of 
it? The only chimney on the 

"Yes, the only chimney on the 
redbrick house." 

"Well, it was right there that Bill 
Sykes hung," triumphantly an- 
nounced the lad. 

"Well, well," chuckled Dickens, 
"isn't it strange? I had almost for- 
gotten where it was myself." 


This incident led to the inclusion 
of "Billy the Cartwheeler" in an in- 
timate group of young proteges 
which became known as "The Dick- 
ens' Boys." 

At one time when Billy had been 
called to meet his benefactor, 
Dickens kept the appointment in 
company with William Wilkie Col- 
lins, the peer of all detective writers, 
who later became the novelist's son- 

"And is this your boy?" Collins 

"Not my son," was the reply, "but 
one of my boys," and it was in this 
fashion that Mr. Culmer was always 
introduced. At one time, for three 
months, he was a house guest at the 
home of the novelist. 

The Culmer family also main- 
tained a close friendship with Oscar 
B. Young, then an ordinary mis- 
sionary, who had been sent abroad 
to assist his elder brother, Brigham 
Young, Jr., in the work of the Eu- 
ropean Mission of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
with headquarters in Liverpool. 

In 1863, the Culmers, who were 
loyal Mormon converts, crossed the 
Atlantic in the emigrant ship 
Hudson, an 800 ton barque twice 
condemned as unseaworthy. Sev- 
enty days were required for the 
crossing. Trans-shipping from New 
York in cattle cars, they were joined 
at the Missouri River by westward- 
bound immigrant groups numbering 
about one thousand persons from 
eastern Europe and our own south- 
ern states. Many were en route to 
Utah, others to the California gold 

The journey was an eventful one; 
Indians were encountered at North 
Platte, Whiskey Gap, and Cache 
Junction. Culmer mentions with 
pride that he was given a cayuse as 
{Concluded on page 436) 

The story of our 


General Superintendent of the Deseret 
Sunday School Union and First Assist- 
ant Chairman of the Church Music 

xxx. 'Ssmih^ iiohsL 
ihsL S^cAiui SihoitL 


T'his hymn, used by the Salt Lake 
Tabernacle Choir as a theme 
song for its nationwide broadcast, 
which begins its tenth year on the 
air this month, was written by the 
early Church poet, William W. 
Phelps, a short sketch of whose 
life was printed in The Improve- 
ment Era for March, 1937. It 
was included in the collection 
made by Emma Smith in 1835 
under divine authority. There 
is no dramatic story known con- 
cerning the origin of the hymn. It 
was no doubt written while Brother 
Phelps was under the spell of the 
Sabbath and the solemn sacrament. 
It expresses gratitude for the return 
of the day of rest and its attendant 
blessings, thoughts on eternal life, 
the great reward, and the day of 
sacrament in remembrance of the 
Lord, a day for gifts of broken 
hearts and willing sacrifices — a type 
of blessed things to come, when the 
Saints will be gathered in eternity, 
to praise God in sweet accord. It 
sings of repentance and forgiveness, 
enjoins all to fast and pray, as God 
ordains, for his goodness and his 
love while the Sabbath remains. 


The Tune and Its Composer 

The tune for this devotional hymn 
has been made popular as the theme 
or signature of the coast-to-coast 
KSL-Columbia network broadcast 
of the Tabernacle choir each Sunday 
morning. It was selected from 421 
hymns contained in Latter-day Saint 
Hymns. The composer was the late 
Thomas C. Griggs, an English con- 
vert to the Church of Jesus Christ 


By William W. Phelps 

Gently raise the sacred strain, 
For the Sabbath's come again, 
That man may rest, 
And return his thanks to God, 
For His blessings to the blest. 

Holy day, devoid of strife; 
Let us seek eternal life, 
That great reward, 
And partake the Sacrament 
In remembrance of our Lord. 

Sweetly swells the solemn sound, 
While we bring our gifts around 
Of broken hearts, 
And a willing sacrifice, 
Showing what His grace imparts. 

Happy type of things to come, 

When the Saints are gathered home, 

To praise the Lord, 

In eternity of bliss, 

All as one with sweet accord. 

Holy, holy is the Lord, 
Precious, precious is His word; 
Repent and live; 

Though your sins be crimson red, 
Oh, repent, and He'll forgive. 

Softly sing the joyful lay, 

For the Saints to fast and pray! 

As God ordains. 

For His goodness and His love, 

While the Sabbath day remains. 


of Latter-day Saints. He was born 
in the town of Dover, County of 
Kent. Shortly after his baptism 
May 17, 1856, he and his mother 
emigrated to America, arriving in 
Boston, July 11, 1857. It was here 
he first became interested in music, 
joining a brass band in that city. 
At the close of the Civil War, 
mother and son crossed the plains in 
Captain Joseph Home's Company, 



arriving in Salt Lake City, Septem- 
ber 13, 1861. He played in John 
Eardley's and Mark Croxall's 
bands. During the early sixties he 
was employed by Walker Brothers 
in their branch home at Camp Floyd. 
There he joined a class in vocal 
training and became leader of the 
choir at that place. He dated his 
career as a choir leader from that 
time. Returning to Salt Lake City 
he joined the Tabernacle Choir and 
sang under five of the leaders- — C. J. 
Thomas, Robert Sands, Ebenezer 
Beesley, George Careless, and Evan 
Stephens. In April, 1880, while on 
a mission to Great Britain, he was 
named as conductor of the Taber- 
nacle Choir, with Ebenezer Beesley 
as his assistant who conducted dur- 
ing Brother Griggs' absence. Upon 
his return, Brother Griggs graciously 
suggested that Brother Beesley con- 
tinue as conductor with himself as 
assistant, and that was done. For 
ten years previous to his mission 
and two years upon his return, he 
directed the Fifteenth Ward Choir, 
then one of the best in Salt Lake 

From 1874 to 1891, Elder Griggs 
was superintendent of the Fifteenth 
Ward Sunday School and from 
1891 to 1901 superintendent of the 
Salt Lake Stake. In 1889, he was sus- 
tained as a member of the Deseret 
Sunday School Union Board which 
position he held until his death. He 
and Brother Beesley compiled the 
first Deseret Sunday School Song 
Book and assisted in the compilation 
of the Latter-day Saints Psalmody. 
In May, 1900, he was named busi- 
ness manager for the Union, which 
position he held until his death. He 
was an indefatigable worker and 
did much to improve music in the 
Church. He died August 12, 1903. 


iphjoloqhafduxL dtiqhliqhLiu 1$ ihsL Qwul Qoft^MnoL 

1. Mass dance of 1,000 couples on the Saltair Pavilion, under the direction 
of the M. I. A. 

2. Canadian delegates, Scouts from McGrath District Council, in a mo- 
ment of relaxation. Left, David Anderson, right, Jay Christensen. 

3. M. I. A. Conference Principals: Left to right: Augustus D. Zanzig, 
director of the Music Festival; Miss Myrtle Leonard, guest soloist; 
President Heber J. Grant. 

4. Pres. Lucy G. Cannon of the Y. W. M. I. A., and Supt. George Q. 
Morris of the Y. M. M. I. A., en route to one of the convention meetings. 

5. Part of the crowd gathered for the Summer Institute at Memory Grove, 
City Creek Canyon. 

6. National Boy Scout Leaders at M. I. A. Conference gathered at the 
Brigham Young Monument. Left to right: Raymond O. Hansen, Dr. 
Ray O. Wyland, and Edward L. Curtis. 

7. Welcoming Canadian Delegates. Left to right: Superintendent May 
Anderson, of the Primary Association; LeGrand Piepgrass, king scout 
of Canada; Charles S. Matkin, Boy Scout Commissioner of Canada; 
Superintendent George Q. Morris, of the Y. M. M. I. A.; and President 
Lucy G. Cannon of the Y. W. M. I. A. 

8. Scouts of the Salt Lake Council Impressively Carry American Flags 
as they drill in the University Stadium in Preparation for the Cavalcade 
of Scouting. 




Of Brigham Young Universitv 



: Jtah's first serious trouble between 
Whites and Redmen grew out of slave 
traffic and began eight years before the 
Civil War broke out. 


Slavery brought on a war in 
Utah eight years before the 
Civil War. This early strug- 
gle is interesting for other reasons. 
It was Utah's first sustained conflict 
between the Pioneers and the In- 
dians. And, differing from most 
frontier fighting, it apparently grew 
out of the white men's kindness to 
the redmen. 

At the beginning of 1853 the good 
treatment that the Mormons gave 
the Indians seemed productive only 
of good. Many redmen, after one 
or two minor outbreaks, were labor- 
ing diligently and even happily to 
help the whites become established 
in the Basin of the Great Salt Lake. 
As late as the spring of '53 Brigham 
Young received such morsels of 
news as this from various nooks 
of the new Territory: 

The Walkers (Indians) work first rate; 
you can see them all over Nephi carrying 
water, chopping wood, assisting to haul 
wood, and doing other duties. They had 
helped much in harvesting crops the pre- 
vious autumn. 

The natives . . . look upon us as men 
that are sent by the Great Spirit to amelior- 
ate their present though wretched con- 
dition . . . They herd our flocks and faith- 
fully labor. . . . 

This report came from John D. 

Lee at Fort Harmony. He also de- 
clared the Piedes cut pickets as well 
as white men could. 

What destroyed this happy part- 
nership in many areas was, to a 
significant extent, the disapproval 
with which the Latter-day Saints 
viewed the slave traffic between the 
Indians and the Mexicans. In the 
footsteps of Fathers Dominguez and 
Escalante had come less unselfish 
Spaniards. These later comers 
bought squaws and children which 
the Utes captured from weaker 

This traffic brought the two most 
powerful and picturesque figures of 
earliest Utah history into conflict. 
As governor and Indian superin- 
tendent of the Territory of Utah, 
Brigham Young forbade the slave 
trade because it violated the laws of 
the territory and often placed guns 
and ammunition in the hands of un- 
ruly tribes. As a far-roving and 
successful war chief who often took 
captives, Chief Walker approved 
the trade for what it brought him 
and his under-chiefs. He wanted 
no interference. 

Walker looms head and shoulders 
above the rest of Utah's Indian 
leaders. He was called "king of the 
Indians in these mountains" by 
Brigham Young. His name brought 
shivers to Indians and even whites 
from New Mexico to California, so 
boldly and swiftly did he strike. He 
ranged as far south as Sonora and 
Chihuahua. He rode north to fight 
the Snakes and Shoshones. Once, 
for example, he raided ranches in 
Southern California and came trot- 
ting home with a thousand captured 
horses thundering before him as 
proof of his triumph. 

f^ESPiTE occasional protestations 
of friendship, Walker had 
wanted to fight the Mormons from 
the beginning. But Sowiette, the 
good chief, had twice thwarted him 
by withholding needed support and 
by warning the whites. 

Also Walker had held sporadic 
hopes of making the Mormons his 
allies against rival tribes. But 

Rows of cabins with log palisades filling gaps 
between formed some of the first forts in Utah. 



when he proposed such an alliance 
to Brigham Young, he met a firm 
refusal that infuriated him. 

Then Brigham Young interfered 
in the slave trade. A score of Span- 
iards, led by a certain Pedro Leon, 
had appeared in Sanpete valley late 
in 1851 and had begun trading 
horses and other valuables for In- 
dian children and firearms. Their 
intention was to sell the youngsters 
into slavery in Mexico and to trade 
the weapons to the truculent Nava- 
jos. They sometimes sold guns to 
Utah Indians, if they could drive 
good bargains. It was a many- 
sided traffic, according to Dr. Wm. 
J. Snow, authority on Western His- 

These traders held a license to 
trade with the Utah Indians. It 
was apparently signed by James S. 
Calhoun, governor and Indian su- 
perintendent of New Mexico. Two 
other such bands of traders carrying 
similar permits were reported to be 
operating in Utah. 

Brigham Young would not recog- 
nize such licenses in his territory, 
and he would not issue Utah licenses 
contenancing the slave trade. He 
ordered the Spaniards to stop their 
traffic. They laughed at him. They 
had carried on the trade when Utah 
belonged to Mexico, and they pre- 
ferred to continue. 

The affair reached a head later 
that winter. Pedro Leon's band was 
arrested and brought to trial, first 
before a justice of the peace in 
Manti, Utah, and then before Judge 
Zerubbabel Snow of the first district 
court. The Spaniards were found 
guilty. The nine slaves they had 
when arrested — a squaw and eight 
children — were freed and the Span- 
iards were commanded to leave. 

They did not all leave the Terri- 
tory. Some skulked about, inciting 
the Indians against the Pioneers. 
They no doubt ascribed the action 
of the Mormons to selfish motives. 
They probably pointed out that the 
Mormons themselves had purchased 
Indian children. 

This was true. Several times In- 
dians had attempted to barter cap- 
tive children to the settlers for guns 
and other articles. And they usually 
succeeded in driving a bargain when 
they made it clear that rejection 
often meant torture or slow starva- 
tion for the children. On at least 
two occasions, young captives were 
tortured at the very doors of the 
settlers who had declined to buy 
them. And the whites, at last un- 
able to endure the shrieks of the 
victims, paid what the captors 

Nevertheless, the cunning words 
and the sneers of the Spaniards 
seemed to be having effect, at least 
on the chiefs who profited from the 
traffic. A hint of trouble came early 
in the spring of 1853. An express 
arrived in Salt Lake City from Iron 
county with news that Chief Walker 
had met white men pursuing Indian 
thieves. The chief had placed him- 
self in the path of the posse and with 
a menacing manner had told them to 
go home. 

T"Vmick B, Huntington, inter- 
preter, sought a peace talk with 
Walker in Parowan. But the chief 
had hurried off to "Sampitch" over 

the Spanish Trail and could not be 
overtaken. On the way north from 
Parowan, Huntington found that 
Chief Peteetneet and his band had 
gone up Provo canyon to wait and 
"see how the battle went." What 
battle? Something was in the air. 

Another ominous hint came late 
in April, 1853. Visiting Provo on 
the twentieth, Brigham Young was 
brusquely accosted by a stranger 
who demanded a private interview. 
Suspicious, the governor refused. 
Later he learned that the man was a 
former New Yorker who had lived 
in Mexico for several years and had 
come here to buy Indian children to 
trade to the Mexicans. 

When reminded that such traffic 
was contrary to law, the stranger 
had impudently retorted that 
"Catching comes before hanging." 

"He made some threats and 
boasted that he had four hundred 
Mexicans on the Sevier awaiting his 
order," reported Governor Young. 

Could this be true? Brigham 
Young did not think so. But know- 
ing was better than guessing. In 
a proclamation issued at Provo on 
April 23, 1853, he struck at the slave 
trade and ordered Captain W. M. 
Wall with a detachment of thirty 
men to ride southward "through the 
entire extent of the settlements, re- 
connoitering the country and direct- 
ing the inhabitants to be on their 
guard against . . . surprises." They 
were also "authorized and directed 
to arrest . . . every strolling Mexican 
party, and those associating with 

IN 1854. 


them, and other suspicious per- 
sons . . ." 

Other measures which he took at 
this time to "preserve peace, quell 
i:he Indians, and secure the lives and 
property of the citizens of the Ter- 
ritory" were these: 

The militia of the Territory are hereby 
instructed to be in readiness to march to 
any point ... at a moment's notice. 

All Mexicans now in the Territory are 
required to remain quiet in the settlements 
. . . and the officers . . . are hereby di- 
rected to keep them in safe custody, treating 
them with kindness and supplying their 
necessary wants. 

More disquieting news came to 
Brig ham Young and his party as 
they continued southward into San- 
pete valley. They learned at Manti 
on April 27, 1853, that the Chief 
Arrapene, brother of Walker, had 
left the day before, very angry. All 
the other Indians had also gone 
away in a great hurry that morning. 
With hostile actions the Indians had 
kept the people of Allred's settle- 
ment in alarm all night. 

Three Indians crept into Manti 
fort one midnight. When chal- 
lenged they asserted they brought 
news from Walker and Arrapene, 
who "wanted peace." Brigham 
Young sent gifts of clothing, tobac- 
co, and food by these messengers, 
and told the chiefs to behave them- 
selves. But he warned the settlers 
to be prepared for any emergency. 

He learned that one hundred fifty 
Yampa Utes had gone over to 
"Walker's camp." These Yampas, 
it seemed, and Walker's warriors 
were the "four hundred Mexicans" 
on the Sevier. Reported Governor 

On our return we learned at Nephi that 
Batteez, Indian chief, had ordered all his 
Indians to flee to the mountains. Offense 
was taken by the Indians at my Proclama- 
tion which forbade the traffic in Indian 
children. The Utahs were in the habit 
of stealing children from the Piedes 
and other weak tribes and trading them to 
the Mexicans; when the parents of the 
stolen children resisted, the Utes would kill 
them rather than relinquish the children. 
Batteez had been accustomed to this 

"Drigham Young was not daunted 
by the threats of war. Speaking 
in the Salt Lake tabernacle on his 
return, he frankly admitted that 
Walker held a strong position 
among the Utah Indians. But he 
said: "If he becomes hostile and 
wishes to commit depredations upon 
the persons or property of this peo- 

ple, he shall be wiped out of exist- 
ence and every man that will follow 

Captain Wall with his militiamen 
returned from his scouting tour of 
the south on May 11, 1853. He had 
learned at Parowan that Walker 
and his bands apparently were con- 
gregating on the east branch of the 
Sevier River. All Piede and Pah- 
vant chiefs with whom Wall had 
parleyed, told him the same story: 
They were glad to have the Mor- 
mons among them but they feared 
Walker. He stole their children, 
and when he could not steal them 
he killed their parents and sold the 
children to the Mexicans. 

"From the best information. . ." 
Wall concluded, "Walker is willing 
to live in peace, if he can have his 
own way in stealing other Indians' 


children to sell them to the Mexicans 
for guns and ammunition, or if we 
will buy those children of him and 
give him guns and ammunition, to 
enable him to continue his rob- 

With customary audacity and 
perfidy, Walker strode into Gov- 
ernor Young's office on July 2, 1853. 
He feigned friendliness. 

But President Young was not de- 
ceived. Neither were some of the 
other white leaders. They fretted 
about the poor defenses of many of 
the tiny southern settlements, for 
they sensed danger. The tinder was 
being gathered for the spark. 

Indian flint and Pioneer steel 
clashed on July 17, 1853. Plenty 

of sparks flew. Oddly, this fulmi- 
nating incident, like the underlying 
cause of the coming war, grew from 
a white man's attempted kindness 
to an Indian. This is the way it 
came about: 

A group of Indians approached 
James Ivie's home near Spring- 
ville on July 17, 1853. A squaw 
entered the cabin and bartered some 
trout to Mrs. Ivie for flour. The 
squaw's mate arrived as the terms 
of the exchange were agreed on. 
He railed at his spouse for driving 
too easy a bargain. At last he 
hurled her to the floor, leaped at her, 
stamped, and kicked her, 

James Ivie came running. He 
relished a fight, some old-timers say. 
But in this instance he was actu- 
ated by humane motives. According 
to Ivie's story, he jerked the buck 
away from the moaning squaw. 

The Indian attempted to shoot 
Ivie. The white man siezed the bar- 
rel of the gun and wrenched it so 
violently that he broke the weapon. 
He staggered back clutching the gun 
barrel. Swinging it like a club, he 
dealt the threatening Ute a blow on 
the head. The Indian crumpled to 
the floor as if dead. 

Another Indian shot an arrow 
that passed through the shoulder of 
Ivie's hunting shirt. Ivie brought 
his iron war club down on this 
brave's head also, and laid him 
senseless on the floor. 

Then the squaw did what most 
women would do to an intruder in 
a domestic quarrel — she upheld her 
husband. Snatching up a stick of 
firewood, she struck her rescuer 
across the mouth. She, too, received 
a blow from the gun barrel, and she 
joined her unconscious tribesmen on 
the floor. The upshot was that her 
husband died a few hours later. 

Another incident occurred at 
about this time which helped stir 
the wrath of the reds. An Indian 
shot a fellow tribesman at Provo, 
probably accidentally. But the man 
responsible fled and his act was laid 
to the whites. 

Wild for vengeance, the Indians 
rejected peace offerings of beef and 
clothing. Chief Walker was camp- 
ed near Payson with a large band. 
One night Indians crept into Payson 
and shot Alexander Kiel, a guard. 
Then the band hurried southward to 
lodge their families in a place of 
security for the impending struggle. 

The Walker War had begun. 


$IwAili^ out d$. ihsL d&MJd, 



There are those who say that 
wild camels roam the Mojave 
Desert; that a huge "snow 
white" one leads a pack of these 
ungainly "ships of the desert" across 
the vast solitudes of our southwest's 
most arid country. 

Just how true are the occasional 
vivid tales told by old prospectors 
of seeing these supposedly long- 
vanished creatures far out on the 
wastelands? Is there really a rem- 
nant of that early government ex- 
periment remaining? 

These are questions that might 
well exist in the minds of many, 
coming on the heels of the announce- 
ment, recently, of an old "desert rat" 
who allegedly saw his pet burro 
elope with a band of the humped 
animals, led by an enormous white 
one. Of course, everyone knows 
that the loneliness and eternal si- 
lence of the desert, coupled with 
the long ( many times disappointing ) 
years spent in search of the illusive 
"strike," is conducive to at least 
some of the strange sights reported 
by members of this grizzled fra- 
ternity. Yet the desert holds many 
incredible truths — and mirages! 

While it is a matter of conjecture 
whether or not any descendants of 
that camel venture of the '50's are 
to be found today, it should be noted 
that the government, in 1855, 
brought a ship load of them from 
Asia Minor, at the insistence of 
Gen. George H. Crossman. The 
latter was convinced that camels 
were the only sensible mode of trans- 
portation across that "vast Sahara 
which could not be traversed by 
mules, horses, or oxen." Mr. Cross- 
man is credited with having con- 
ceived the idea of using camels in 
the Southwest as early as 1848. 

At that time, California existed in 

the minds of most persons as some 
strange, mythical place, fabulous al- 
most as the Seven Cities of Cibola, 
that lured the early Spaniards west- 
ward in the 16th century. Today, 
that eternal lure still exists in the 
minds of countless thousands, not 
one whit diminished since the days 
of the bold conquistadores. 

The "camel craze" swept the 
country. It was laughed at and 
joked about. While the House of 
Representatives was ridiculing the 
bill, introduced by General Cross- 
man, for an appropriation to import 
a few camels for experimental pur- 
poses, Jefferson Davis, the deeply 
interested War Secretary, succeeded 
in obtaining the appropriation. 

Mr. Davis pointed out the great 
importance of these beasts of burden 
in Asia and Africa, and their valu- 
able service to the British in East 
India. He was convinced that they 
could be equally valuable in our own 
arid frontier, and very effective 
against hostile Indians. 

Some of the newspapers became 
earnest in advocating the plan of 
forming a "dromedary express, to 
carry the fast mail and to bring 
eastern newspapers and letters to 
California in fifteen days." The 
arguments backing the proposed 
scheme at the time were entirely 
logical. It was even indicated that 
"fast camel passenger trains" would 
be plying between the Missouri 
River and the Pacific Coast. Camels 
there must certainly be! 

There was his famous reputation 
of going for as long as ten days 
without water. It was a long way 
"between drinks" from the Missouri 
to the Colorado River, but not too 
long for the camel, who could board 
himself on sagebrush, cover 30 to 
50 miles a day with a load of a 

thousand pounds, and deliver his 
freight and passengers in the Cali- 
fornia coast town in two weeks from 
starting time. 

At length, in 1854, a Congres- 
sional appropriation of $30,000 
was obtained — which was the initial 
move in America's first and last ex- 
periment with camels as a means of 
transportation. A purchasing expe- 
dition headed by Major Henry C. 
Wayne was conducted to Egypt and 
the Levant. "The history of the 
Army abounds in unusual duties 
performed by its officers, but few 
compare with Major Wayne's mis- 
sion," writes Robert Gainsburgh. 
"It required an international diplo- 
mat, an accomplished auctioneer, 
and an obedient soldier, and mostly 
the patience of Job." 

His ship reached Tunis in August, 
1855. After acquiring three camels 
there, he proceeded to Malta, where 
news of his coming had preceded 
him. On his arrival there he found 
every sore-backed camel in Asia 
Minor doctored up and waiting on 
the coast, to be "offered to the 
United States at a grievous sacri- 
fice of ten times its value." 

A half-dozen other seaports were 
touched, and each in turn had its 
motley camel herd waiting for him. 
But at last the purchasing was com- 
plete, and thirty-four irritable and 
sea-sick animals and their native 
attendants comprised the expedition 
when it finally arrived at Indianola, 
Texas. On the voyage there had 
been six births and four deaths. 
The Texans, many of whom had 
perhaps never seen a camel, turned 
out in large numbers to witness the 
unloading of this peculiar cargo, of 
which someone has written: 

(Continued on page 436) 


OifwL WiuL WmC' 


± t 

riHEY were a little too honest 
to steal, too proud to beg, and 
too d — lazy to work," opined 
an editor recently in speaking of 
Cayuga County's "three wise men." 
Over in Cayuga County, New York 
they claim Isaac Singer (Singer 
Sewing Machines), Henry Wells 
(Wells Fargo Express), and Brig- 
ham Young as their own. 

Port Byron and Auburn are the 
principal cities in the locale of this 
narrative. Rich is the word for that 
section if you are interested in the 
history of our early Mormon leader. 
Recently, a group of interesting 
things were found by a number who 
were touring the Eastern States Mis- 
sion. Dr. John A. Widtsoe, Sister 
Leah D. Widtsoe, who is a grand- 
daughter of President Brigham 
Young, and President Frank Evans 
of the Eastern States Mission were 
in the party. 

In Port Byron we visited the fam- 
ily of Mr. W. H. Weston, who lives 
within a few feet of Brigham 
Young's residence of early man- 
hood. One of the most interesting 
things we discovered was a docu- 
ment that was read before the Cay- 
uga County Historical Society 
many years ago. The document, 
which is an old newspaper under 
date of March 5, 1904, is in pos- 
session of the Weston family. Mr. 
Weston is the nephew of William 
Hayden, who was the author of the 
paper. The article, according to the 
rules of evidence, is unquestionably 
reliable. The author is very careful 
to avoid saying anything that he 
does not know to be true. Mr. Hay- 
den, who was a very learned man 
and a member of the New York 
State Senate for a number of years, 
knew Brigham Young intimately. 

In the stately home of Mr. West- 
on one of the further attractions is 
a cannon ball, not the ordinary sort 
but one that was captured from the 
British at Saratoga in 1 777 and car- 
ried by President Young's father 
one hundred miles into Vermont. 
When the Youngs moved to York 
State the cannon ball went with 
them. Mr. Hayden tells of the relic 
in his paper. The following inci- 
dent also recorded in the paper re- 
ferred to shows the resourcefulness 
of the pioneer leader, in that he put 
the cannon ball to a practical use: 

Brigham, as he was familiarly called, was 

By Joseph Williams 
and John Farr Larsen 

Of the Eastern States Mission 

C'ayuga County, New 
York, claims Isaac 
Singer of the sewing ma- 
chine, Henry Wells of 
Wells Fargo, and Brigham 
Young, of whom they tell 
many stories these among 



first employed at painting wooden pails, 
the work being done in a manner so satis- 
factory as to call forth many compliments 
from the proprietor, Mr. Parks. Brigham 
suggested that there was still a chance for 
improvement if the paint could be properly 
prepared. This, he declared, could be done 
with slight additional expense and, once 
arranged for, would enable Mr. Parks to 
dispense with the services of one man, while 
the work itself would be better done. 

It was agreed that Brigham was to make 
the improvement in one day, Mr. Parks to 
furnish the required material. That eve- 

ning Brigham selected his lumber and at 
dawn of day he was found busy at his 
task. At noon he had a small water wheel 
completed and, while the other operatives 
were at dinner, he drew the water from the 
flume, adjusted a gate and had his wheel 
running upon their return. 

His wheel had an upright shaft some five 
or six feet high with a slant of 35 or 40 
degrees. On the top was arranged a frame 
to hold a large old-fashioned dinner pot, 
into which the paint was put with a cannon 
ball weighing 25 pounds. When the wheel 
was set in motion, it would revolve in one 
direction while its slanting position would 
cause the ball to roll in the opposite direc- 
tion. The idea was that the continued roll- 
ing of the ball would grind or pulverize the 
paint to the desired fineness. This im- 
provement was pronounced by all a com- 
plete success and thereafter Brigham was 
consulted in regard to all proposed alter- 
ations and improvements upon the premises. 

NT ear the home of Mr. Weston in 
Port Byron is a well that Presi- 
dent Young stoned. The well still 
gives forth delicious, pure water 
which is a testimony to the skill and 
good judgment of our second leader. 
An interesting story is told about 
this well: 

The lady of the house in which several 
of the factory help boarded rebelled at be- 
ing obliged to carry the water for culinary 
purposes from a spring some 30 or 40 rods 
distance and requested Mr. Parks to have a 
well dug near the house. 

Mr. Parks proposed to have it dug 
about 10 rods north of the house at a point 
where the ground was lower and argued 
that the expense would be proportionately 
less. This idea not being in harmony with 
the wish and convenience of the lady, a 
somewhat heated discussion arose, and not 
being able to harmonize the situation, it 
was finally agreed to appeal the case to 
Brigham. After listening to the arguments 
on both sides, he decided that the place for 
the well was near the house, assuring Mr. 
Parks that the fact that the ground was 
higher at that point was no reason why 
water could not be secured with no greater 
depth of digging, calling his attention to the 
fact that the spring from which the water 
was then procured was much higher than 
the ground upon which the house stood. 

Geologists today accept this as an 

Mr. Parks had many excuses for not 
digging the well, the strongest being that 
no man could be found with the necessary 
skill to lay the stone in stoning it up. To 
this objection Brigham proposed that if Mr. 
Parks would furnish help after the close 
of the day's work in the factory he would 
himself undertake the stoning up the well 
and would guarantee its permanence. 

This generous proposition was readily ac- 
cepted and work on the well speedily begun. 
At a little less than 20 feet a good stream of 
water was reached, which has continued to 
flow copiously until the present day. Some 
10 nights of hard work for three or four 
hours each night and the well was com- 
pleted and was ready for use. Mr. Parks 
expressed himself as much pleased and with 
his customary generosity presented Brig- 
ham with a dollar which it was afterwards 
said that Brigham tossed into the well as 
a thank offering. This I will not vouch for, 
but I do know that when the well was 
being cleaned some 20 years afterwards a 
silver Spanish dollar was found. 

It was while President Young was 


working here in Port Byron that he 
met his first wife, Miriam Angeline 
Works. He took his bride to a cot- 
tage that he built without assistance. 
Brigham Young was about twenty- 
five years of age at the time. The 
house he built for her is sturdy and 
strong and it is still in use today. 
The State of New York has placed 
a marker on the roadside near by. 
The house has three floor levels; the 
lowest one being on the ground — a 
semi-basement kitchen. Three rooms 
are on the middle floor, and two 
rooms in the upper story. Stairways 
inside the house connect all floors. 
It is thought that the basement was 
used by Brigham Young as a work- 

An incident of a drowning boy is 
one that was never effaced from the 
memory of Senator Hayden. He 
used the following words before the 
Cayuga County Historical Society: 

Little Willie Carpenter, a lovely boy of 
about three years, was allowed to go and 
meet his father, a workman in the carding 
machine building about 10 rods south of the 
pail factory. When the little one did not 
return as expected an alarm was given 
and a search begun. Brigham at once con- 
cluded that if the boy had fallen into the 
raceway, the current would have drawn him 
into the flume and out of sight. He im- 
mediately plunged in and, after a few mo- 
ments of swimming and feeling about in 
the raceway, the body was found and 
brought out. 

The frantic mother caught the limp little 
body in her arms and it was some time 
before Brigham could persuade her to al- 
low him to take measures to resuscitate 
the child. It was too late, however, for 
life was extinct. I have often heard it 
remarked afterward that Brigham shed more 
tears over the loss of this child than did 
its own father. 

Vears after President Young left 
Port Byron and became one of 
the "Mormons," the citizenry named 
the section in which President 
Young lived, "Nauvoo." The name 
is common in Port Byron today. 

Going down state from Port By- 
ron we entered Auburn, N. Y., 
where Brigham Young assisted in 
building many houses. One in par- 
ticular we noticed was the home of 
William F. Seward who was Secre- 
tary of State in President Abraham 
Lincoln's cabinet. At the entrance of 
this mansion are two lion figures re- 
sembling the one at the entrance of 
the Lion House in Salt Lake City. 
No doubt this is where President 
Young obtained his idea to build the 
Lion House. 

Inspiration is received from this 
section. When one gets down to 
the facts and weighs them carefully 
there is only one conclusion to be 

N. Y. 







reached: Brigham Young was an 
outstanding young man in Cayuga 
County, resourceful, capable, cour- 

ageous, and sympathetic. Evidences 
that testify to these characteristics 
are being uncovered every day even 
though he was a figure of a century 
ago. Is it not logical to suppose that 
if God needed a great leader to carry 
on His work He would select a man 
having these qualifications? 


ChwihcA, JhsL is 



Oalmyra and its immediate vicin- 
* ity, revered in Mormon history 
as the birthplace of a great reli- 
gion, is fast becoming a modern 
mecca for tourists and members of 
the Church from all parts of the 

Plans are well under way to 
make the traditional conference 
and pageant to be held July 22, 23, 
and 24 an event that will be an 
inspiration to all who attend. All 
who plan to make a visit to this 
sacred spot would do well to ar- 
range their schedules to be present 
at this event. Bus loads of people 
from the west will make it one of 
their main stops on tours to Mor- 
mon shrines. 

Here can be seen the Sacred 
Grove where the Prophet Joseph 
Smith received the first revelation; 
the old homestead where he lived 
as a boy; the Hill Cumorah where, 
at the hands of the Angel Moroni, 
he received the records from which 
he translated the sacred history of 
the ancient inhabitants of the con- 
tinent. There is now, also, the 
forty foot bronze and granite Angel 
Moroni Monument which is illumi- 
nated by powerful floodlights 
every night from dark to dawn. 
At the base of the Hill Cumorah 
is the Bureau of Information build- 
ing, designed to resemble the archi- 
tecture of ancient America. 

Public meetings will be held in 
the Sacred Grove each day. On 
each of the three evenings, the 
stirring pageant, "America's Wit- 
ness for Christ," will be presented 
in the open-air theatre. This 
pageant attracted audiences of 
over 10,000 people last season. 

President Frank Evans of the 
Eastern States Mission extends a 
hearty invitation to all to join in 
the annual Hill Cumorah Pilgrim- 
age this year. 




Of the Netherlands Mission 

astic applause given the missionaries 
rivaled greatly that received in Amster- 
dam a month previous. 

Every year the A. M. V. J. Athletic 
Club of Amsterdam sponsors an in- 
ternational basketball tournament at 
which the countries England, Belgium, 
France, Germany, and Holland are 
usually represented. As cage artists, 
the missionaries are pointing for this 
tournament, but as missionaries they 
are pointing towards making friend- 

Rotterdam was the scene of intense 
baseball activity last summer. Through 
the efforts of Elder John A. Roghaar 

breaking down prejudice and replacing 
it with friendship. 

Recently, through their affiliations the missionaries made arrangements to 

with the A. M. V. J. Club and the play with a group of young men from 

efforts of Elder Orme Jergensen who the A. M. V. J. Athletic Club of Rot- 

, j acts as playing manager of the team, terdam who were just learning to play 

To ninety-nine out of a hundred two teams f missionaries were invited the American national sport. Some 

the mention of the name Nether- to p i ay an exhibition game of American very enjoyable Saturday afternoons 

lands probably brings visions of basketball at the opening of a new were spent teaching the Dutch boys 

stately windmills, dikes, wooden g y mna sium built by the Koninklijke the finer points of the game, playing 

shoes, brightly colored costumes, broad Luchtvaart Maatschappij (National against them and making some true 

acres of tulip fields, and all the other Airways Company) of the Nether- and lasting friendships. The Elders 

"Dutchisms" that are known the world \ an ds. Saturday, January 29, was set invariably won the contests, but at the 

over. Yes, all these things are still to be as the day for this event, and the Elders end of the season the Rotterdamers 

found in the small country where fifty w h attended as well as President and were making a real battle out of every 

Mormon missionaries are preaching the Sister Franklin J. Murdock met in Am- game. 

Gospel of Jesus Christ, and although s terdam and were transported by a To further the cause of friendship as 

rapid modernization is pushing Oud K.L.M. bus to the airport at Schiphol, a well as to show their good will and 

Holland" or "Old Holland into the sma ll town about three miles from sportsmanship the missionaries entered 
background, the things that were a part Holland's largest city and where Hol- 
of it will probably never become ex- i and ' s i argest airfield is located, 
tinct and Holland will forever be Tj pon en tering the gymnasium, the 

immediately im- 

looked upon as one of the quaintest 
and most picturesque lands on earth. 
Occupying a space only about one- 
seventh the size of the state of Utah, 
it has yielded a fruitful harvest of con- 
verts in the seventy-odd years that the 
Gospel has been preached there. For 
though the land is small, the people are 
sturdy, industrious, intelligent, and 

into competition with their Dutch op- 
ponents in Holland's national game of 
soccer. The Americans were given a 
couple of thorough drubbings, although 
pressed with the modernness of the they did learn to respect the prowess 
structure and the exclusiveness of the of the Dutch players as well as learn 
opening. Only persons with printed something about the game. Several 

missionaries were 

interesting film evenings were held and 
the growth of the M. I. A. classes in 
the Rotterdam branch this winter has 
been the result of the summer's "extra" 

Missionaries are not losing them- 

making contacts and winning friends. 


invitations were admitted and repre- 
sentatives from select Dutch military, 
civic, social and recreational circles 
were present. 

Before the game Elder Frank B. 

above all — religious-minded — which at- Jex addressed the crowd through the 

titude gives every Mormon proselyter amplifier, both in Dutch and English, selves in their enthusiasm to play 

an approach to their hearts. But even announcing who the missionaries were Sports are being recognized for what 

so, her long and glorious struggle for and expressing their appreciation for they are — one of the many means of 

liberty and her persistency in maintain- the invitation they had received. A 

ing that liberty despite the ambitions group picture was taken of the players 

of the many nations who have longed and the referee, and several times during 

to rule over her, have bred within her the game press photographers took 

people a certain inflexibility which ex- flash-light shots of the players in ac- 

presses itself when anything foreign is tion. Apparently the spectators were 

introduced. thrilled with the game, for the enthusi- 

All of the known methods of mis- 
sionary work are employed in the 

Netherlands, including distributing 

tracts, illustrated lectures, English 

classes and choruses. The realm of 

sports also offers an opportunity to 

"Make Friends," but only during the 

past year has it been used to advantage. 

Basketball in the city of Amsterdam is 

sponsored by the A. M. V. J. Athletic 

Club and it is through their friendliness 

and cooperation that the missionaries 

have been participating in that sport. 

Late in December an exhibition game 

was played against the A. M. V. J. five 

in their gymnasium in Amsterdam be- 
fore 350 high school students and fac- 
ulty members. After their victory the 

missionaries were given thunderous ap- 
plause and they could not help but 

feel that they had made a step towards 


Why i do not 



If the "I" in the above title sounds 
too personal, you will forgive me, 
an unknown college girl, when 
you realize that it is less egotistical 
than to say "Why Girls Should Not 
Smoke," because that would imply 
that I am an authority on the matter. 
And of course I am not. 

Plenty of people who have a right 
to write such an article have been 
before me, and have given you force- 
ful, technical reasons why tobacco 
is especially harmful to women. But 
let me approach the problem inform- 
ally, from the point of view of one 
of the younger generation. 

I assure you that I am a perfectly 
normal girl and I don't smoke. I am 
twenty-one, and, like any of Eve's 
daughters, I want to be as attractive 
as possible. The first requirement, 
of course, is good health. There is 
nothing charming about yellowed 
teeth, a sallow complexion, jaded 
nerves, and that famous pariah about 
which even your best friends won't 
tell you. I want a clear skin, a clean 
smile, and breath untainted by to- 

In time nicotine yellows the skin 
of the face as it does the fingers, 
causing tired lines, sharp features, 

a languid, anaemic look, a coarsened 
voice, and an appearance of pre- 
mature old age. Some one has sug- 
gested that the old saying that a 
woman is as old as she looks might 
well be changed to "A woman is as 
old as she smokes." 

Most of us rejoiced at the change 
from the boyish styles to the present 
graceful fashions. Girls wisely want 
to appear feminine again. Cigarette 
smoking is masculine and unfitting. 
How grotesque it is when a girl is 
in chiffons or trailing evening dress! 
I spent part of my life within sight 
of an illiterate, unkempt old Irish 
woman. Winter and summer she 
wore a small dirty shawl over her 
head and sat crossly on her door- 
step, a frown on her leathery old 
face, and a pipe in her mouth. But 

Mrs. H and her corncob pipe 

were not so incongruous a sight as 
an attractive, well-dressed girl with 
her mouth askew to accommodate 
the ubiquitous cigarette. 

Tobacco, however, affects more 
than the outward appearance: it is 
harmful to the general health as 
well. The average young woman of 
today has a glorious heritage of good 
health. Cigarettes are petty thieves, 
cleverly stealing this heritage little 
by little. 

I was interested to learn just how 
bad is the reputation of tobacco with 
the medical profession. A bit of 
study brings to light the following 
dismal facts: Smoking injures the 
heart. The tobacco heart is an ir- 
ritable heart, frequently intermittent 
in action and not to be depended 
upon under calls for severe physical 
exertion. Tobacco causes high 
blood pressure; it poisons the nerves, 
hurts the eyes, lessens resistance to 
many diseases, notably tuberculosis. 
It sometimes induces cancer; it stunts 
the growth of the young, and it im- 
pairs efficiency and athletic power. 

Nicotine is only one of an im- 
pressive list of poisons contained in 
tobacco smoke. And nicotine is so 
deadly that we read of a case in 
which less than one grain of nicotine, 
less than two drops, caused a per- 
son's death. When the younger 
generation carelessly refer to cigar- 

ettes as "coffin nails," they speak 
far more truth than poetry. For 
nicotine is a slow poison and a habit- 
forming drug. 

Unfortunately, once a woman 
starts smoking, she is apt to indulge 
in the habit even more often than a 
man. It is a feminine characteristic 
to go to extremes — especially regret- 
table in this case because cigarettes 
are undeniably more harmful to 
woman than to man. 

Though I am still one of the 
younger generation, I have enjoyed 
the fine friendship of a number of 
sweet old people. And I, too, want 
to grow old gracefully. Querulous- 
ness and irritability come with smok- 
ing. Advanced years bring more 
frequent illnesses, and with most 
sickness the patient is not allowed 
to smoke. An inveterate smoker, de- 
prived of the weed, is an especially 
fretful and unpleasant person to 
have around. 

"Decently I was chatting with a 
classmate of mine, — a pretty 
girl, always dressed to the last min- 
ute of fashion's dictates. Your first 
impression would suggest that a 
serious thought never enters her neat 
little head. But I knew that she does 
not smoke, and I asked her why. She 
looked up, at once alert and inter- 

"Aside from health reasons," she 
said, "I think it makes a girl appear 
so cheap and common. I know I 
certainly shouldn't want my mother 
to smoke. And incidentally if I ever 
have any daughters I wouldn't want 
to set a bad example for them. I 
think most girls smoke because they 
want to do what the crowd does. 
But boys say that few girls do it 
well. This summer the boy I dated 
most boasted, 'My girl doesn't 
smoke!' So I'm proud that I don't 
smoke. It's being different not to, 
these days." 

I quite agreed with her. A few 
years ago when a woman smoked, it 
was with something of a pioneer, 
adventuresome spirit, however mis- 
directed. Now it is distinctive not 
to smoke. To smoke is to follow the 
line of least resistance. One of the 
(Concluded on page 436) 


By Harry Elmore Hard 

Man, with your back to the sun, 
Your face to the soil, 
I honor the sweat of your brow, 

The fruit of your toil. 
Hold the horns of the plow, 

Turn the sod — 
Work is an act of faith, 

A prayer to God. 
Rein the furrow straight, 

Hope is a star — - 
Plow to the end of the field, 

Lift the bar. 
Swing . . . stretch . . . strain . . . 

Beware of rocks — 
Think of the ripened corn 

In golden shocks. 
Plant your kernels of faith — ■ 

Sloth is a weed — 
Rain shall bless your work, 

Swell the seed. 

By Belle Watson Anderson 

Spring softly treads the dreary sombre 
And paints the glow of beauty in the trees, 
Reveals the charm of rhythm in the breeze, 
And calls to drowsy roots with tapping rain. 

At seeding time, before the vernal sun 
Awakened crescent buds on bramble tree, 
The planter had made the land clear and 

Of hardy resisting brush. He had come 

Across the roadless hills to level field 
To plow and sow the priceless golden grain; 
No fences to protect the fallowed plain 
From cattle grazing on all tender yield. 

He built a hut with oak-brush, and with pine 
Made a home like the ground squirrel's nest, 
Dug ditches and canals in water quest 
And stayed day and night at the frontier 

Marvelous feats are wrought by faith and 

God fashioned the heart of the sturdy plow- 

And made him equal to each need and plan. 

Six driving months he did not quit or shirk. 

At last he saw the billowing grain, 
The radiant promise of winter's bread; 
In humbleness the farmer bared his head 
For the blessed miracle of the plain. 

By C. N. Lund 

Worthy son of Pioneers, 
Spanning all the marching years, 
Bridging all the builded dream 
Of prophet men whose spirits seem 
To walk and talk with you 
Amid the wonders that we view. 

Through want and wilderness, 
Through days of storm and strife, 
To peace and wealth and fame 
You've brought your honored name. 
You've nobly walked the height 
With manliness and might, 
And conquered with the plan 
That God evolved for man. 


Photograph by Harrison R. Merrill. 

By Carlton Culmsee 

WHO carved the gold and crimson 
From the strong hills? 
A host of mighty-muscled Titans 

With stubborn wills? 
Who reared the altars, glowing, holy? 

A prophet with his rod? 
No, only the Virgin toiling slowly 
For the glory of God. 


By Maryhale Woolsey 

Lace curtains?- — oh, they're quite passe," 
The decorator made decree; 
"Let's use, instead, fine draperies 

That leave the windows clear and free." 

I love this modern shiningness; 

But still, it grieved me when today 

Some little breezes came to call — 

And I'd no place for them to play! 
■ ■» . 

By Merling Dennis Clyde 

The June-grass waves in silvered sheets; 
A hawk sails lazily; 
The road unwinds its ribboned way 
To lead on endlessly. 

Dust clouds circle across the plains; 

A scorching wind moans by; 
Mirages fling up blue-green lakes 

To taunt the seeking eye. 

The desert waste must first be crossed 

To find the cooling streams; 
The barren spots must be traversed 

To reach the land of dreams. 

(A Japanese Cinquain) 

By Elizabeth Whitmer Locke 

Orange blossoms 
Symbolize fruitfulness 
Set as a crown on womanly 

By Sylvester Pierce 

(One of Utah's pioneer dry farmers who 

is still actively operating a 2,000 acre ranch 

in central Utah.) 

Way out in the wilderness, 
I found a valley wide and fair 
That needed only water 
To make a garden there; 

My friends all warned me not to go. 

They said it was a fake, 
And only one in that wild land 

Would dare those chances take. 

There were no streams or rivers, 

So this is what I said, 
"I'll store the moisture in the soil 

And that will do instead." 

I made the soil so nice and fine, 

Prepared a real seed bed, 
And when the summer's heat came on 

My plants went right ahead, 

For they were spaced in rows and hills 
To give them room to dwell — 

Although unusual drought prevailed, 
These dry land crops did well. 

When I see these fertile fields 

Where once was desert land, 
The system used to make this change, 

I surely think it grand. 

By Sylvia Probst 

THERE are so many lovely things 
I've enjoyed today: 
Morning sunshine riding 
In soft clouds of gray; 
Autumn's echo in the hills; 
Wind that brushed my face; 
Spiders in the naked trees, 
Spinning dainty lace; 
One last fragrant little flower 
In a sheltered nook. 
I can find such lovely things 
When I look! 

By Lydia Hall 

IN the West where the purple sage 
Lifts lovely, scented plumes 
Is where the shining, scarlet-tipped 
Indian paintbrush blooms. 

And every year when Springtime comes 

To this fair desert land, 
Old mother nature paints with them 

Bright pictures in the sand. 

By Nephi Jensen 

SONG of bird, blush of rose, 
And glint of soothing star 
Give me Beauty's repose; 
I own all near and far. 

Serene Truth's regal reign 
My heart with faith empowers; 

Peace holds my soul's domain; 
I own Life's rarest dowers. 



Dresident J. Reuben Clark, Jr., left 
Salt Lake City Friday, June 3, 
en route to Europe to attend two im- 
portant international gatherings as 
American representative. The first, 
June 20 at Geneva, are the meetings 
of the League of Nations Committee on 
International Loan Contracts. The 
second, at Paris, June 27 and 28, is the 
Conference of European Bondholders, 
at which he represents the Foreign 
Bondholders Protective Association 
Inc., of which he is now chairman of 
the executive committee. Following 
this conference, President Clark will 
visit London and sail from Southhamp- 
ton for the United States on July 7. 

President Clark was appointed to 
the Bondholders Council as a director 
in 1934 and served as acting president 
for a few months before becoming pres- 
ident of the council. Recently he re- 
signed active direction of the Council 
because he was unable to devote the 
increasing time required for these 
duties. As a tribute to his service, and 
desiring to keep him in close associa- 
tion with the Council, the directors 
created the position of Chairman of 
the Executive Committee and elected 
him to that post. 


John Alden Bowers of Ogden, Utah, 
has been appointed president of the 
Brazilian Mission to succeed Rulon S. 




Left to right, First Row: Merrill B. Robinson, Harold W. Wood, Clotele Olson, Mrs. Thelma Waddoups, 
Marcella Andersen, Louise Call, Klea Pugsley, Evelyn Branch, Margaret Price, Crosby A. Glenn, J. Wyley Sessions 

Second Row: Edgar B. Mitchell, La Prile B. Mitchell, May Summers, Sadie Ogden, Elsie Swan, Grace McCook, 
Dorothy Crochett, Harriet D. Eyre, Jay Wynn Lees. 

Third Row: Dee Sanders, Elda Hepworth, Erma Hansen, Emma V. Payne, Alice Snow, Lizetta Seeley, 
Va Netta Larsen, Lydia Christensen, Cal. H. Cornia. 

Fourth Row: Orville W. Allen, Floyd E. Hays, Dennis L. Prows, Lillis Ence, Ruth Adamson, Elaine Call, 
Zelda Wheeler, H. Christian Andierson, Reed Oldroyd, Earl Williams. 

Fifth Row: Rulon Henderickson, R. Larkin Glade, Clyde W. Gardiner, Genevieve Morgan, Ruth Fors, 
Richard H. Ray, Ida Perry, Montie Snow, Spencer Clawson. 

Sixth Row: A. Sherman Gowen, Harold Sabin, Eldon J. West, Augusta Brough, Ruby Durrant, JoJw E. 
Gillespie, Merlin Huntsman, Royal Victor Wolters. 

Seventh Row: William Wayne Capner, Leon Zollinger, Vincent Christensen, Carlton Chester Cope, Claude 
Don Williamson, Mac Hanchett, Milton Sanders, William H. Bousfield, Heber Christensen, Eldon D. Hymas. 

Eighth Row: Robert W. Flake, Wayne Dudley, Owen L. Cox, Vernon C. Sorenson, Harold Lee Allen, 
John Cummings, Harold Glover, Herbert Lester Tracy. 

Howells, who has served as president 
for the past three years. Elder Bowers 
has long been active in the Church, as 
a Seventy in both Carbon and Ogden 
Stakes, and as a member of the Carbon 
Stake M. I. A. stake board. He filled 
a mission to Germany from 1926-1929. 


TPhe golden anniversary of the dedi- 

cation of the Manti Temple was 

celebrated from June 14 to June 19, 

1938, with many of the General Au- 

thorities of the Church in attendance. 
President Grant explained in his re- 
marks that he is the last of the General 
Authorities who participated in the 
dedicatory services fifty years ago. He 
bore his testimony to the truthfulness 
of the Church and urged all Latter-day 
Saints to catch the true spirit of the 
Gospel which is industry and labor. 
Others who addressed the audience of 
5,000 were Robert D. Young, presi- 
dent of the Manti Temple; Elder 
George F. Richards, acting patriarch 
of the Church and Church supervisor 
of temples; President Joseph Quinney, 
Jr., of the Logan Temple; Louis R. An- 
derson, former stake president and 
chairman of the General Jubilee Com- 
mittee; and George F. Richards, Jr., 
of the Salt Lake Temple presidency. 

Each evening a pageant, "The Hearts 
of the Children," was presented with a 
cast of 200 under the direction of the 
author M. W. Smith, who wished to 
commemorate the golden jubilee of the 
completion and dedication of the Manti 
Temple, and also to present the views 
and doctrines of the Church concerning 
Temple ordinances. 


A udiences which totaled 6,000 listen- 
ers cheered the Mormon Pioneer 
representation which climaxed the re- 
cent Fifth National Folk Festival, held 

in Constitution Hall, Washington, 
D. C. Following a handcart up the 
main aisle, over a hundred descendants 
of the original pioneers, in costume, 
sang "Come, Come, Ye Saints" as the 
concluding feature. This is the first 
occasion of Mormon participation at 
this festival. The Virginia Reel, a 
pioneer dance, was performed by three 
sets on the stage. Headlined attention 
was given to this participation by news- 
papers in the nation's capital. 

In marked contrast was the reception 
given the Prophet Joseph Smith, when 
in 1839 he came to Washington with 
Judge Elias Higbee seeking redress and 
government intervention in behalf of the 
Missouri refugees of the Church. "Your 
cause is just, but I can do nothing for 
you" was the final verdict of President 
Van Buren. 

"Nevertheless," said Joseph Smith, 
in heartbroken departure, "some day 
the Mormon people will be held in 
renown in the nation's capital." 

Washington members of the Daugh- 
ters of the Utah Pioneers, Zina Willey, 
president, and the Utah State Society, 
headed by Frank E. Moss, took part in 
the folk festival. W. H. Willey re- 
hearsed the dancers and "called" the 
steps, while D. Sterling Wheelright, 
director of music at the L. D. S. Wash- 
ington Chapel, coached the singing and 
marching. Children as well as their 
parents took part in the costumed pro- 

{Continued on page 4281 


JHsl Jjiaimnq^ 0$. QJjoidk. 

Tn one of the meetings of the recent, successful 
M. I. A. — Primary Conference, President Heber 
J. Grant urged upon parents to train their children 
in the principles and practices of the Gospel as of- 
fered by the Church. It was the most comprehen- 
sive and important message of the Conference. 

The training of children determines the behavior 
of men and women. That is taught by human ex- 
perience. The proverb-maker has declared: "Train 
up a child in the way he should go: and when he is 
old, he will not depart from it." And more simply: 
"As the boy is, so the man is." The future of the 
race rests upon the training of youth. 

Character, the most inclusive and important at- 
tribute of man, is woven of religious beliefs and 
practices, which, in our land, may not be taught in 
the public schools, now attended by nearly all of 
our children. The Church, through Sunday and 
weekly auxiliary meetings, through high school 
seminaries and college institutes, does something to 
overcome this condition. Nevertheless, it must be 
admitted that the home, with its daily contact with 
children, is the most powerful agency for the 
awakening and training of the spiritual nature of 
the family. As parents teach, the children are likely 
to become. 

It is a false conception of duty, as explained by 
President Grant, that impells some parents to say 
that they must not prejudice their children in favor 
of any religion, but allow them, unhindered by 
early training, to make their choice of church at- 
tendance and membership when they come to ma- 
turity. Usually, this is proposed by parents who, 
themselves, have become inactive in the Church. 
Every child, in our age, will be taught, if not by 
parents, by someone or something else, perhaps by 
the rabble on the streets, and often in opposition 
to religion. Moreover, if parents have well-ma- 
tured convictions as to any belief, it is their duty 
to pass them on to their children. To do otherwise 
would be cowardly, and a retreat from parental 
responsibility. Truth must be carried to others, 
especially to those of our own flesh and blood, else 
progress ceases. Besides, when maturity is reach- 
ed, the teachings of parents may and will be 
weighed by the ripened judgment. There need be 
no fear on that score. 

Parents who love their children should teach 
them, freely and fearlessly, faith in God and Jesus 
the Christ, the restoration of the Gospel through 
the instrumentality of Joseph Smith, the doctrines 
of the Church, and the necessity of feeding the 
spiritual part of man by participation in Church 
work. Children should be urged to take part in the 
several organizations of the Church. Children, 
so taught and trained, grow towards clean, whole- 
some, useful lives, and cause the hearts of genuine 
parents to beat with warm joy. In this chaotic 
age, to direct youth into truthful, spiritual living 
is the highest service that parents can render a 
child. To accomplish this task, association with 
the Church is indispensable. 

The awakening and training of parents for their 
duties are among the foremost needs of the day. 

— /. A. W. 

"\T7ith more than two-score years of enriching ex- 
perience and tradition behind it, the Forty- 
third Annual Conference of the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Mutual Improvement Associa- 
tions reached new "highs" in many respects, and 
added its own distinctive contributions to the his- 
tory of the whole. 

The three days from Friday, June 10, to Sunday, 
June 12, inclusive, followed by a day devoted to 
summer Recreation and the Cavalcade of Scouting, 
offered such quantity and variety of instruction and 
inspiration as to make one earnestly wish not that 
the feast might be more bounteous, but that the 
powers of human consumption might be equal to it. 

The Conference included more than a hundred 
general and departmental sessions and major 
events, with several times that many speakers, 
topics, and individual program numbers. More 
than six thousand people actively participated in 
the various functions, and registered and non- 
registered observers totalled in excess of twelve 

We yield to the temptation to select for special 
mention a few of the events, although the high 
merit of the entire procedure would perhaps make 
it wiser not to isolate any specific items; but the 
mass demonstrations, including the Dance Festival 
on Friday, the Music Festival on Saturday, the 
Convocation of Scouting on Sunday, and the 
Cavalcade of Scouting on Monday, were such high- 
lights as to demand citation. 

More significant, however, than any technique 
or program event was the underlying, over-riding, 
and all-permeating theme of the Conference: 
"Building Latter-day Saints — through cultural ac- 
tivities, through better teaching, through religious 

For all that occurred commendation is due 
Superintendent George Q. Morris, President Lucy 
G. Cannon, and all their associates and board 
members and field workers throughout the Church. 
The same commendation must be extended also to 
President May Anderson of the Primary Asso- 
ciation, and all her workers, for the companion 
conference that was held simultaneously by the 
leaders of the Primary children. 

Such experiences and traditions of cumulative 
enrichment to the Church and its people deserve 
eulogy and continuance. — R. L. E. 

and. Jobacco^ 

'T'he reading of the statement reprinted below was 
the signal for a rising vote of more than four 
thousand people in support of the Churchwide 
campaign against the sale, use and advertising of 
tobacco and alcoholic beverages. The occasion 
was the opening meeting of the M. I. A. Confer- 
ence, in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, Friday, 
June 10, 1938, with President Grant and many of 


the general officers of the Church in attendance: 

Thankful to the Lord for His kindness in revealing the 
Word of Wisdom to the Prophet Joseph Smith for the benefit 
of this people, 

Grateful to the generation that is past and to older members 
of the Church for the splendid tradition of sobriety they have 
created, of which the world is now taking note, 

Appreciative of the tireless efforts of President Grant and 
his associates, the General Authorities, in teaching us to obey 
this word of the Lord and of their present call on the Priest- 
hood and auxiliaries to bring about among us the non-use of 
alcohol and tobacco, 

We, the officers and members of the Mutual Improvement 
Associations of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, in annual conference assembled, consider it a privilege 
and a duty to declare our feelings and our intentions in this 
serious matter. 

We believe that the alluring advertisements of tobacco, 
in many cases amounting to moral if not legal misrepresen- 
tation, by which the manufacturers of this damaging narcotic 
have so widely extended its sale, is a conspiracy against 
our most precious possession, youth. 

We believe that the alarming increase since the repeal of 
prohibition in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, with 
their ancient evils of disease, poverty, crime and insanity and 
their present frightful effect on daily traffic, is also due in 
very large measure to the same potent influence, advertising. 

We believe it is not fair for the sake of gain, to play upon 
the susceptibilities of youth by constantly repeated entice- 
ments, nor to make boys and girls feel that they will live 
happier and fuller lives if they use these hurtful things. 

Guided by the above statements and consistent with the 
tradition of the Mutual Improvement Associations, we declare 
that in earnest support of the program of the Church we 
pledge ourselves: 

That we will gladly teach the Word of Wisdom as a di- 
vinely revealed law of health: 

That we will cheerfully act on ward or stake committees 
as we may be called, or work under their direction in carrying 
information to homes and in making friendly contact with 

And that we will strive to diminish the use of alcoholic 
beverages and tobacco by doing all that lies in our power to 
curb the false and persuasive advertising of these poisonous 
and habit-forming drugs, the baleful and alluring publicity 
that is now deluging the country. 

It is to be hoped that the rising vote of the 
M. I. A. may be only a forerunner and symbol of 
a rising vote of nationwide effective indignation 
against these evils which rob us of health, wealth, 
virtue, and manhood, the promoters of which flaunt 
lying deception in our faces with apparent im- 
punity, trading for profit the integrity of our youth. 

— R. L. E. 

(L CrfjomcuilL Sph&hsL 

r pODAY there is much of both beauty and ugliness 
in the world; much of joy and much of sorrow; 
much of love and of hate. When talking of ugli- 
ness, sorrow, and hate, many women have been 
content to say glibly: "Well, it's a man's world; 
what can you expect?" The sooner women face 
the facts and accept the responsibility which is 
theirs for some of the bad conditions which exist 
today, especially when they fully expect to receive 
praise for the good, they will succeed better in the 
correction of the bad. 

"The hand that rocks the cradle is the hand 
that rules the world," is more than an adage that 
has fallen into disuse. Mothers do have the privi- 
lege of shaping men in the way they should go. 
Those things in the world which are harmful can 
be traced somewhat to the negligence of mothers 
who did not fully realize their opportunities when 
the youngsters were under their care. 

Mothers in the home can teach the value of 
loving consideration in settling vexatious little prob- 
lems which arise even in the best of homes. Thus 
they can pave the way for a peaceful consideration 
of neighborhood problems, community, and inter- 
national questions when these same young people 

One of the first things which should be empha- 
sized is respect for authority. This does not imply 
blind obedience, but rather thoughtful deference 
to those whose experience has placed them in po- 
sitions of trust. Chief among Latter-day Saint 
homes should come respect for the Priesthood, 
first in the home, thus laying the foundation for 
respect in the ward, stake, and the Church 
throughout life. 

Respect for the Priesthood would seal mothers' 
lips against any criticism of leaders in the Church. 
Mothers would consider carefully and would come 
to understand that they could not possibly have 
knowledge of the conditions which prompted cer- 
tain speeches and actions from the presiding offi- 
cers. Mothers would be quick to reprimand the 
children who might pick up gossip and retail 
it. Children learn by example rather than by 
preachment. Mothers in the home by their negli- 
gence and carelessness often undo all that they 
would teach when they do not themselves follow 
what they teach. 

Since mothers' responsibility is greater, their 
joy of well-done service is also greater. The wom- 
an's sphere is therefore perhaps the greatest of all 
activities, for if the mothers of men set the stand- 
ards while the youth are still malleable, the world 
will attain to those heights which have been fore- 
told by all the prophets of ancient and modern 
times. Let women no longer shrug aside their 
responsibility by repeating catch phrases; rather 
let them accept the fact that as mothers of men 
they can and should mold the world. 

Fired with purpose, trained in wisdom, filled 
with love, mothers can do more than all other 
leaders in implanting in the hearts of their chil- 
dren the ideals and the hopes and dreams of future 
achievement. Like many other great of the earth, 
they will pass unknown into their graves — their 
lives like shadowy lines moving dimly across the 
horizon of time. Unhonored, they will be forgot- 
ten within a few short years; yet the effect of their 
lives will be greater than the greatest, for they will 
have leavened a whole loaf. Unremembered, the 
ever-widening circle of their influence will result in 
untold good. And they always need to keep in their 
hearts the prayer of the ancient psalmist: "Create 
in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right 
spirit within me." With this prayer constantly 
beating in the hearts and uppermost in the minds, 
mothers can easily create the right spirit in the 
hearts of the children who have been intrusted to 
them by a gracious Creator. They will have made 
part of their equipment the true humility which 
will permit the Lord to work with them and lend 
them His inspiration when they are most particu- 
larly in need of it. Their reward will come when 
they see the results of their training bearing good 
fruits in the fellowship which will come to prevail 
throughout the world. — M. C. /. 



The Utah State Agricultural 
College, A History of Fifty Years 

( Joel Edward Ricks, Deseret News 
Press. 184 pages.) 

TThis well-prepared, informative vol- 
ume has been published as part of 
the semi-centennial celebration of the 
Utah State Agricultural College. 

It is really the story of how the in- 
stitution amidst the changing years has 
steadfastly clung to the ideal of the 
founders of the College; namely, that 
the intellectual gains of the world must 
be used to dignify the common pursuits 
of man, that is, the pursuits of the com- 
mon man. In this endeavor, farming 
and the home, the safest foundation 
blocks of our civilization, have been 
the centers around which the college 
has built its manifold activities. The 
Utah State Agricultural College dur- 
ing a half-century of life has been true 
to its trust. 

The book is a fascinating glimpse of 
a most important chapter of Utah his- 
tory — a vital part of the intellectual 
story of the State. 

There are twelve chapters in the 
book : Background, The Federal Land 
Grant Act, Utah Establishes an Agri- 
cultural College and Experiment Sta- 
tion, President Jeremiah W. Sanborn — 
An Appreciation by Professor John T. 
Caine, The Early Years, Progress and 
Conflict, Reconciliation and Growth, 
War and Peace, Expansion, Under the 
Block A., Student Body Activities, and 
Bibliography. In an Appendix are 
listed all trustees, faculty members, and 
student body officers of the college dur- 
ing the history of the school. 

Dr. Ricks, Professor of History and 
Chairman of the semi-centennial cele- 
bration, has produced a painstakingly 
accurate volume, in which with deft 
judgment he avoids issues that are dead 
and clings to the spirit and progressive 
achievements of the college. The 
epochs of college history are made to 
parallel the administrations of the sev- 
eral college presidents, and personal- 
ities appear and move on every page — 
a device which holds and increases in- 
terest. In the space at his command, 
the author has done an excellent piece 
of work. 

The author and the college are to be 
congratulated upon the production of 
this attractive volume, which should be 
in the library of every lover of Utah 
history. — /. A. W. 

The Modern Family and 
the Church 

( Regina Westcott Wieman, Harper 
& Brothers, 1937. 407 pages.) 

'The home with its manifold relation- 
ships has always been a concern 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints. Therefore, this thought- 



THE much-prized Houghton, Mifflin 
fellowship award of $1,000, 
given annually to aid new writers, 
was won this year by Miss Maurine 
Whipple of St. George, Utah, for 
her novel, The Giant Joshua, which 
when completed will cover three gen- 
erations of Mormon life in the Dixie 
Mission, a heroic venture symbolic 
of the entire Mormon experience. 

ful, scholarly book, written out of long 
experience with the problems involved, 
will be of Church-wide interest, and 
especially so because the discussions 
rise above sectarian differences and ap- 
proach the problems in a generous and 
understanding manner. Full attention 
is given to Latter-day Saint ideals and 
practices for effective family devel- 
opment. The title does not really 
do justice to the work, for somewhere 
or other on its pages practically 
every problem of courtship, mar- 
riage, and parenthood is discussed. 
Nevertheless, Dr. Wieman is true to 
her thesis in pointing out as her central 
thought the responsibility of the Church 
in furthering all family interests. 

All informed people will agree with 
Dr. Wieman's constant plea for edu- 
cation for family life. She says, (p. 34) 
"Many parents will spend from fifty to 
five thousand dollars on the wedding 
fete, but not one penny on appropriate 
education for marriage." Only by edu- 
cation, through Church and State, shall 
we be able to succor married and fam- 
ily life from its present distress. 

The four parts of the book, each 
crowded with valuable facts and con- 
clusions, are: The Family in the Life 
of Today; The Church and Its Relation 
to the Family; The Church at Work 
with the Family; and Facing into the 

This book, up-to-date, fearless yet 
wise in its treatment, is one of the few 
that may be heartily recommended to 
all who are interested in the most im- 
portant problems of family life. 

— /. A. W. 

Stories Behind the World's 

Great Music 

( Sigmund Spaeth, McGraw-Hill, 

New York. 371 pages. $2.50.) 

Tn these days when we should have 

the slogan read, "Music for every- 
one and everyone for music," such a 
book as Sigmund Spaeth's Stories be- 
hind the World's Greatest Music is a 
wholesome addition to any layman's 
library or list of "Books I Have Read." 

The exhilarating semi-humorous 
style of the author together with the 
many authentic bits of history and ap- 
praisals of men and their music are 

written into the book in wholly under- 
standable language. You can begin 
reading this book on any page and 
though you continue for only a line or 
two, you will have read something in- 
teresting. The subject matter is worth- 
while throughout because it deals with 
the world's greatest music and the men 
who created it. — /. Spencer Cornwall, 
Director of the Tabernacle Choir and 
Chairman of Literature in the General 
Music Committee and Chairman of the 
Music Committee of the General Board 
of the Y, M. M. I. A. 

Problems and Values of Today 
A Series of Student's Guidebooks 
For the Study of Contemporary Life 
(Eugene Hilton, Ed. D., Little, 
Brown & Company. Two Volumes. ) 

T^hese volumes won the Atlantic 
Textbook Prize. That is not sur- 
prising, for they are the foremost con- 
tribution in recent days to the education 
of young people in the problems of 
our "contemporary life." The correct 
understanding of our changing days is 
the nation's, perhaps the world's, great- 
est need, for the establishment of per- 
manent peace and prosperity. To this 
problem these volumes address them- 
selves fearlessly and intelligently. There 
is no attempt to take sides, but a definite 
effort is made to lead the students to 
comprehend the conditions, causes, and 
possible corrections involved in our 
civilized life. 

A simple but effective method is em- 
ployed. The volumes are divided into 
twenty units, dealing with twenty 
themes of major concern in American 
life. Each theme is fully outlined, the 
associated problems concisely stated, 
and a series of exercises set up to secure 
thinking on the part of the student. A 
vast amount of information is made 
available in the discussions; and the 
exercises might with profit be studied 
by all Americans. Numerous effective 
illustrations, drawn by Ruth Taylor, 
and reproductions of photographs ac- 
company the text. 

The unit theme titles indicate wide 
and important fields: We and Our 
World, Our Sources of Information, 
Government, Suffrage, Democratic 
Government, Health and Safety, 
Wealth, Money, Spiritual Values, Re- 
lation of the United States to Other 
Nations, Adjusting Personality to Re- 
ality, Education, Economic Organiza- 
tion and Activities, The Common 
Man's Outlook, Home and Family, 
Plans and Planning, "Sore Spots," Se- 
curity, People Needing Special Care, 
Looking Forward. However, the mere 
titles are poor representations of the 
wealth of thought and material under 

The volumes were prepared for use 

in the first two years of high schools, 

(Concluded on page 420) 



r azy days — reading days — are here 
*"* again, and all of us should take the 
time and improve the mind — even if we 
are too lazy to do much about bracing 
the body. Books for old and young 
will be found on library shelves, where 
there are libraries — and where there 
are no libraries, groups of people can 
do much themselves to satisfy this urge 
to keep abreast of the modern books 
and magazines. One group has adopted 
a workable plan by using an exchange 
system. Since the individual members 
could not afford all magazines and 
books, each family subscribed for one 
magazine, read it, listed it, and passed 
it to another, keeping a record of the 
person to whom it was lent. This fam- 
ily then borrowed someone else's mag- 
azine, passed it to those who originally 
purchased it when it was finished, who 
in turn lent it to someone else. In this 
way, all the group received the benefit 
of the latest magazines with less ex- 
pense than any one of them could afford 
individually. (Concluded on page 420) 

Summer is such a tearing good 
time for the children that you had 
better look to the ease of keeping 
them in clothes which will launder 
easily, bear the brunt of rough play, 
and keep them neat looking. All 
of these requisites can be met by 
putting them in Levi Strauss over- 
alls. Be sure to ask for Levi's. 

Ummm! Good! Raspberries are 
coming into the market — and won't 
they taste good in this recipe? Even 
if seeing isn't believing, tasting is: 
so here goes: 


1 c. Globe "Al" flour 

1 c. Globe "Al" whole wheat flour 

1 c. Globe "Al" table bran 

2 tsp. baking powder 
1/2 t. soda 

1 t. salt 

4 tbsp. sugar 

1 egg 

2 tbsp. Globe "Al" oil 
y% c. raspberry jam 
IV2 c. buttermilk 

Sift white flour, measure, add 
other dry ingredients and mix well. 
Add slightly beaten egg blended 
with oil, then add jam and milk; 
stir well. Bake in oiled muffin tin 
in a hot oven (400 degrees) about 
20 to 25 minutes. 

When raspberry time is over, you 
might try other jams — and you'll 
like them, well, if not quite so well, 
at least better than the average! 

And, of course, for that buttermilk 
to use in those raspberry bran gems 
— and to drink this hot weather you 
must try Midwest Dairy Company 
for the very best that money can 



Handiest thing 

on your kitchen shelf 

ONCE you find out how many good 
things besides biscuits you can make 
quickly and easily with Globe "Al" 
Biscuit Flour . . . hardly a day will 
pass but what you'll reach for that 
yellow package with the blue chevron! 
Fluffy dumplings, flaky meat pie 
crusts, apple dumplings, fruit cob- 
blers, nut bread, cheese straws, short- 
cakes, coffee cakes and lots of other 
good things almost "make them- 
selves" when you use Globe "Al" 
Biscuit Flour, because the important 
ingredients are already measured and 
mixed for you ... so carefully meas- 
ured, so expertly mixed, that success 
is assured before you start. Buy a 
package of Globe "Al" Biscuit Flour 
today, the thrifty shortcut to "Al" 

r SU *OAY 

UKip L'NGsK 


,n box) 

***<•" *o„, 



TU ^t>AY 




■ ° n box) 



(Recipe on 







{BodL (Rode 

{Concluded from page 418) 

but would be equally satisfactory in the 
upper two years. Indeed, the volumes, 
compared with many college texts, 
could be used profitably by competent 
teachers in college classes. Moreover, 
the admirable objectives, contents, and 
methods should make these books most 
acceptable for the multitude of study 
clubs throughout the land. 

Era readers will be glad to know that 
Dr. Hilton is president of the Oakland 
Stake of Zion.— /. A. W. 



(Concluded from page 419) 

In handling books, one member 
bought a book and charged five cents 
for everyone who read it until the 
original price was repaid. Everything 
over and above the cost was then put 
into the treasury against the purchase 
of another book. In this way, the group 
has built quite an up-to-date, worth- 
while library. Of course, if you have 
the money, you will buy many of these 
books for your personal book shelves. 
"Where there's a will, there's a way" 
— in the matter of getting good books 
to read. 

The Golden Sleeve 

(Agnes Danforth Hewes, Doubleday, 

Doran & Co., 1937, 280 pages, 


dventure is always appealing to 
boys — and adventure aplenty they 
will find in this story of the Golden 
West. The story deals with the ex- 
periences of Bart Sterling, who ar- 
rived in the West to spend the sum- 
mer vacation with an uncle, only to 
find that the uncle has disappeared. His 
experiences are excitingly told. 

Mrs. Hewes, the author, knows the 
country she describes and, in addition, 
knows how to tell a stirring tale. How- 
ever, this book is not quite up to the 
standard she set when she wrote The 
Codfish Musket, which all boys will 
enjoy reading. — M. C. /. 

The Yearling 

(Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Charles 
Scribner's Sons, New York, 1938. 
428 pages. $2.00.) 

HPhe southern scene of inland Florida 
■*■ comes to life under the spell of Mrs. 
Rawling's glorious story of twelve- 
year-old Jody, his mother and father, 
and friends. Rich in beauty of back- 
ground and setting, the book is even 
richer in the creation of unforgettable 

In the love for nature stimulated 
through the book, in the industry of the 
people who walk through its pages, in 
the wholesome reaction manifested to 
life throughout its pages, this book de- 
serves wide recognition and will win 


deep affection from its readers, who 
will range from the age of Jody through 
adulthood.— M. C. /. 

A Sewing Laboratory Guide 
(May Billings, Brigham Young Uni- 
versity Press, Provo, Utah, 114 pages, 

A^ay Billings, clothing instructor at 
■*•"■*• Brigham Young University, has 
written this guide, primarily for use in 
her own classes. However, it is really 
a book which any woman who sincerely 
wishes to learn the fundamentals of 
sewing could use constantly. The 
Guide does not presume to replace 
commercial patterns. It is designed to 
help the untrained person use them 
intelligently, at the same time building 
a definite way of mastering the techni- 
cal difficulties of sewing. 

Cutting, fitting, and the common 
problems of all garment construction 
are analyzed in a step by step proce- 
dure which is clearly illustrated in a 
simple manner which will appeal to the 
home sewer as well as the trained 
teacher. Of particular interest is the 
method for making evening skirts with- 
out turning them up on the person; the 
setting in of sleeves which is accom- 
plished with absolute success if follow- 
ed carefully. 

The Guide is made loose-leaf style to 
permit the admission of new material. 


Introducing the Constellations 
(Robert H. Baker, Viking Press, 
New York City, 205 pages. 
1938. $2.50.) 

A group of children to whom this 
■**■ book was given, immediately don- 
ned their coats on a bitter night, turned 
on the outside light so that they might 
read, and proceeded to find the con- 
stellations so fascinatingly told about 
in the book. That incident alone 
should prove the usefulness of the book 
and the interest which it arouses in the 
minds of would-be astronomers. 

The illustrations are plentiful, help- 
ful, and attractive. Most adults will 
find the book worth their reading. Mr. 
Baker is Professor in Astronomy at 
the University of Illinois and his en- 


thusiasm and his knowledge can well 
be made to function in the lives of all 
children. — M. C. /. 

Laughing Odyssey 

( Eileen Bigland, Macmillan Company, 

San Francisco, 1938. 307 pages. 


f^oiNG to Russia in search of happi- 
^ ness may sound contradictory, but 
that is what sent Eileen Bigland on her 
"Fantastic Journey"- — and what is even 
more fantastic, she found much happi- 
ness. Hilariously amusing at times, the 
book can become stimulating to 
thought. In this book as in Anne 
Lindbergh's North to the Orient, the 
emphasis was laid on the Russian peo- 
ple themselves. — M. C. J. 

Macmillan's Modern Dictionary 
(Compiled and edited under the 
supervision of Bruce Overton, 
Macmillan Company. 1466 pages. 

'T'his readable dictionary should find 
a ready market. The type-size is 
an improvement over the smaller type 
dictionaries now generally published; 
the thumb-index is all visible from the 
time when the dictionary is opened; all 
material, biographical and topograph- 
ical, is placed in one section, conserving 
time and energy in looking for material. 
Bruce Overton is an accepted name 
in the field of letters and lends au- 
thoritativeness to the stupendous un- 
dertaking of compilation of a new dic- 
tionary. — M. C, J. 

Junior Boat Builder 
(H. H. Gilmore, Macmillan 
Company, San Francisco, 1938. 
87 pages. $1.25.) 

TT[7"hat boy doesn't thrill to the idea 
vv of using his hands to make things 
to enliven his hours of leisure? When 
in the Junior Boat Builder he finds the 
needed information in a readily under- 
standable manner, mother can be as- 
sured that his time will be profitably 
occupied. In addition to the clear in- 
structions, seventeen plates adequately 
illustrate the cutting and assembling 
plans. The book will be a boon for 
the summer months when time might 
otherwise hang heavily or mischiev- 
ously on children's hands. — M. C. /. 

Lisa Vale 

(Alice Higgins Prouty, Houghton 
Mifflin Co., Boston, 1938. $2.50. 
404 pages.) 

HThe mother of a modern American 
family can appreciate somewhat the 
experiences of Lisa Vale, the mother in 
this book. Her problems are an out- 
growth of the current acceptance of 
liquor without education in the harmful 
results from its indulgence. The moth- 
er's insistence on preserving the family 
pattern is welcome relief from the 
tendency to easy disruption. — M. C. /. 

Self-Improvement in Reading 
Pitkin, Newton, Langham, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 
1937. 122 pages. 56 cents.) 

"Pitkin will be remembered for his 
■*■ capable book, The Art of Rapid 
Silent Reading. His companion authors 
for this exercise book were also his 
collaborators in the book, Learning 
How to Learn, which was reviewed in 
The Improvement Era for September, 
1936, page 562. With the increase in 
books, naturally we all shall have to 
learn to read better. The exercises in 
this book are designed to help all read- 
ers check the speed in reading as well 
as the comprehension of what is read. 
The book consists of three divisions: 
the selections for reading, the questions 
on the selections, and the keys to the 
correct answers. 

The book is well worth the cost. 
Even the best of us tends to become 
careless unless we keep in practice. 
The musician never ceases his exer- 
cises. Since all of us must read, we 
should never cease our practice to be- 
come better readers. — M. C. J. 

Tal of the Four Tribes 
(Herbert Best, Doubleday, Doran 
and Co., Inc., Garden City, New 
York, 1938. 295 pages. $2.00.) 

Cince the time when Livingstone first 
^ penetrated into the African wilder- 
ness to the present, adventure and mys- 
tery have been associated with the 
name "Africa". Into this book of fic- 
tion for boys, Mr. Best has cleverly 
woven a story which will appeal for its 
drama and which will leave positive 
ideas as to what must be required of 
those who would be leaders. — M. C. J. 

The Nuggets of Singing Creek 
(Grace S. Dawson, Doubleday, 
Doran and Co., Inc., Garden City, 
New York, 1938. 304 pages. 

T17hat lad wouldn't be delighted at 
^* the prospect of sailing from Bos- 
ton via Cape Horn? And that wasn't 
all the adventure either, for when the 
hero arrived in California, he was right 
in the midst of the gold rush and had to 
fight for his rights along with his father 
against claim jumpers and various ruth- 
less men. How he met the situations 
forms the basis for a good yarn. 

— M. C. /. 

The Runaway Deer 

(Barbara Fleury and Illustrated by 

Lilly Sompii, Macmillan Company. 


"pOR younger children, this illustrated 
■*" story of Gus, the baby deer, will 
prove entertaining. Indirectly, the les- 
son of security in the home is taught. 
Although the young deer found ad- 
venture in his experiences away from 
home, he finally decided that the best 
place of all was his own deer park. 

— M. C. ]. 

S^ocji&a with, 




ML JthjL QotifohmjOL 7JtlAALO/L 


Formerly of the California Mission 

"Delieving with Tennyson that "things 
■^ seen are mightier than things 
heard," the missionaries of the Cali- 
fornia Mission are using visual aids to 
introduce the Book of Mormon to 
those who are not acquainted with its 
teachings. Our reception has been so 
cordial and our results so gratifying, 
that it seems worth while to relate some 
of our experiences. 

During the year 1937 Elders Wallace 
King, Dee C. Anderson, Sterling All- 
red, and J. Shelby Arrigona, pre- 
sented an illustrated slide lecture, pre- 
pared by the Church Radio Publicity 
and Mission Literature Committee, be- 
fore more than 50,000 persons. The 
ruins which are being unearthed in 
Mexico, Central, and South America, 
have furnished subject material for the 
program. The presentation has been 
applauded wherever it has been given 
and requests for it were at times too 
numerous to accommodate during the 
time allotted in some localities. As a 
result of this particular emphasis a 
total of 13,387 Books of Mormon were 
distributed in the California Mission 
during 1937. 

Our paramount objective has been 
to present the lecture before members 
of service clubs, colleges, high schools, 
hospitals, department stores, and hotels. 

In meeting with the heads of these 
various organizations, we found them 
eager and willing to cooperate with us, 
making the scheduling of the lectures 
a pleasant task. Their interest is evi- 
denced by the following experience: 
One of our first contacts was with the 
Venerable Master of the Scottish Rite 
Order of Masonry. Though he is a 
prominent lawyer and banker, he was 
happy to discuss Mormonism with us. 
He had a good understanding of our 
religious teachings and praised our or- 
ganization highly. A recent trip through 
Utah, and his understanding of our 
tenets, opened up the way for an 
audience of four hundred Scottish Rite 
Masons to hear our lecture. That it 
was appreciated by them is certain, due 
to the fact that we were able to secure 
other engagements through the recom- 
mendations of the members attending 
this lecture. 

One day we met with the Director 
of Public Relations of one of Cali- 
fornia's leading department stores and 
explained our work to him. He re- 
ceived us courteously and spoke re- 
spectfully of the Church leaders with 
whom he had associated. We found 
that he had carefully read Seven Claims 
of the Book of Mormon, by Dr. Widt- 

soe and Dr. F. S. Harris, Jr., and 
also had on his desk copies of Why 
I Believe the Book of Mormon to 
be the Word of God, and Mormon 
Doctrine Plain and Simple. A lecture 
was scheduled in the store auditorium, 
and we were introduced to an assem- 
blage of four hundred persons as mis- 
sionaries of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, and were assured 
of our welcome to return and give the 
program again. 

Another success came in booking our 
program for the Lecture Room of the 
Los Angeles Public Library. Hundreds 
of letters were written to school and 
club directors throughout the city in- 
viting them to review our lecture at that 
time. Five hundred people were in 
attendance, and evidenced interest in 
the subject. We were privileged to 
answer many questions concerning the 
Book of Mormon and also to book 
many dates for the lecture to be pre- 
sented in various civic organizations. 

We desired in particular that the 
high school and college students of 
Los Angeles County should hear our 
message. We called on the chairman 
of the assembly programs committee 
of the city schools and explained our 
purpose. After much questioning, he 
finally allowed us to present the pro- 
gram before the students and teachers 
of two schools. We remained at each 
school an entire day, lecturing to in- 
dividual history classes. During that 
time we appeared before 1,600 students. 
We then requested the principals of the 
schools to report their rating of the 
program to the committee chairman, 
and within a few days we returned to 
his office. He gave us a letter of in- 
troduction to the administrators of all 
schools under his jurisdiction, and in 
the letter gave our program a superior 

With this as an opening we visited 
high school principals, and college pres- 
idents, and within twenty days 13,000 
pupils had heard our story. 

We have been welcomed similarly 
by the leaders and students of Cath- 
olic Schools, and more than 2000 of 
their students have already heard our 
message. More than 3000 Indians have 
also listened to our presentation. 

Repeatedly principals and teachers 
have remarked to us that their out- 
standing students are members of our 
Church. Perhaps they have been puz- 
zled by this fact, but the reason is quite 
apparent when we acquaint them with 
the many opportunities the Church 
offers its members. 




T_Tas the course of study been enjoyed 
so far this year by all the Priest- 
hood classes? We hope so, for this 
would indicate two things — that the 
classes have been well conducted and 
that the members have done their part. 
It is necessary that both of these fac- 
tors shall be present for the fullest en- 
joyment of the course. 

To do their part well is it not neces- 
sary that the members shall study the 
lessons? How can they study them if 
they do not have the textbook written 
by Dr. and Sister Widtsoe? This book 
is one of the very best for the Priest- 
hood and the home that has ever been 
provided for quorum use. Certainly 
officers and teachers should make sure 
that each class is well supplied with the 
textbook. This is their duty. 

We say again that those who pro- 
vide the family meals should have a 
knowledge of the contents of this book, 
particularly of Chapters 9 to 15 in- 
clusive. Therein are presented the 
positive aspects of the Lord's law of 
health, the Word of Wisdom. 

How can we have health if we do 
not know what to eat and drink in 
order to maintain health? The Word 
of Wisdom — a Modern Interpretation, 
is a book that clearly but briefly tells 
us about these things. It can be ob- 
tained in either a cloth, or paper-bound 
edition, in the latter at 50c per copy, 
from the Deseret Book Company. 

We again call these things to the 
attention of our readers, knowing we 
shall do a service to all who read and 
practice the teachings of this excellent 
book. — Joseph F. Merrill. 


T'he Personal Welfare committees of 
the quorums cannot accomplish 
their duties satisfactorily unless they 
maintain a series of cards, one for each 
member of the quorum, on which is 
listed information concerning all quo- 
rum members. This means that the 
Personal Welfare committee should 
make a survey of the membership of 
the quorum to learn of their financial, 
mental and spiritual needs. With this 
information at hand the committee 
should with all its might attempt to 
supply the apparent needs as far as it is 
able as a committee to do so, and to 
call upon the bishops for further assist- 
ance whenever that may be necessary. 


'T'he stake Melchizedek Priesthood 
A committees have many oppor- 
tunities for serving the Priesthood quo- 


rums. One of the most important and 
valuable is the training of the quorums 
in the manner of conducting meetings, in 
the duties of the various officers, and 
generally in the proper conduct of the 
business of the quorum. In visits to 
the quorums such matters could profit- 
ably be discussed with the quorum of- 


'T'he secretary of a quorum composed 
of ward groups should compile the 
group records to be reported to the 
stake clerk. The ward group secre- 
tary should report to the quorum sec- 
retary, who in turn will report the com- 
piled information to the stake clerk. 
The ward groups must not become 
separate entities; they are but divisions 
of the quorum. For that reason, also, 
it is very important that every quorum 
made up of ward groups meet as a quo- 
rum at least once a month, and that 


Tn some quorums the class instructor 
calls upon different men at different 
sessions to serve as class instructors. 
In that way during a month several 
men are given practice in teaching un- 
der the guidance of the quorum in- 
structor. This, if not carried too far, 
might be tried out in many quorums. 


A regular program should be pro- 
** vided for the monthly Priesthood 
quorum meetings. The quorums are 
at liberty to choose the subject to be 
discussed. Matters of quorum business, 
of course, should be taken up, and all 
other routine quorum matters, but, in 
addition, a full forty minutes should be 
devoted to some subject dealing with 
Gospel principles. Questions and an- 
swers should be encouraged, and the 
hour be made a happy, interesting and 
profitable one. 


T'he stake Melchizedek Priesthood 
committees could profitably engage 
in leadership training among the Priest- 
hood quorums. This might involve the 
preparation of special programs for the 
regular monthly meetings, dealing with 
questions and methods of leadership. 
In this Church, every man may at one 
time or another be called to a position 
of leadership. There is no special body 
of leaders in the Church. All should 
hold themselves ready for service as 
they may be needed. For that reason 
leadership training is of great import- 

ance and could well be discussed by the 
stake Melchizedek Priesthood com- 


Ts all going well with Priesthood 

* quorums in each stake? According 
to reports there is a decided improve- 
ment in the activities of many quorums. 
This is a cause of thankfulness and 
congratulation to all responsible for the 
improvement, among whom we name 
the stake committees, the quorum of- 
ficers and the members. 

Shall we not keep in mind that the 
quorums or groups of Priesthood will 
not be making satisfactory progress 
unless the stake committees and the 
quorum and group officers are energetic 
and devoted to their leadership and 
supervisory duties? The rank and file 
do not outrun their leaders. 

We admonish stake presidencies to 
see that quorums are kept fully officer- 
ed with suitable men in the presidencies. 
We urge stake committees to be dili- 
gent and enthusiastic in their super- 
visory duties. They have committed 
to their hands a very important job. A 
new life among the quorums will give 
evidence of the activities of these com- 

An earnest request made of these 
committees is that they see to it that 
the quarterly report of every quorum 
shall be promptly made to them and 
copy sent on to the Church Office Build- 
ing, Salt Lake City. Further, the re- 
ports should be complete. The neces- 
sary information should be readily ob- 
tainable from quorum and bishop's 


Tn the May issue of the Improvement 

* Era, under the Melchizedek Priest- 
hood quorum, beginning on page 294, 
there appeared a graph outlining the 
organization for the supervision of 
Melchizedek Priesthood quorums in 
each stake. The graph showed the 
stake Melchizedek Priesthood commit- 
tee to be composed of a member of the 
stake presidency, as chairman; not 
more than three members of the stake 
high council, with a representative from 
one or more quorums of Elders, Sev- 
enties, and High Priests within the 
stake, this committee to supervise the 
work of Priesthood groups and quo- 
rums in the stake. 

It appears that in the minds of some 
there is confusion as to whether or not 
this stake Melchizedek Priesthood com- 
mittee automatically does away with 


the stake Welfare committee function- 
ing in connection with the Church 
Welfare Plan, and if both committees 
are to be continued, then just what re- 
lationship should exist between these 
two committees. 

The stake Welfare committee is to 
be continued as before, with a member 
of the stake presidency as chairman, 
with the following as members: Stake 
work director, chairman of the Bish- 
ops' executive council, stake Relief 
Society president, stake Relief Society 
work director, and secretary, if desired. 

In order to harmonize the work of 
these two committees, because of re- 
sponsibility they may have occasional- 
ly in common, it is advised that the 
same member of the stake presidency 
be named as chairman of both these 
committees, so that should the occasion 
require, these committees, composed 
of Priesthood representatives, and the 
stake Welfare committee above named, 
could meet together jointly and there 
formulate such plans for the directing 
of welfare work among the Priesthood 
quorums of the stake, in cooperation 
with the Church Welfare Plan, as may 
be desired. If this plan of relationship 
is understood and applied, it should 
avoid any confusion or misunderstand- 
ing that might otherwise arise. 


As Reported by the Church 
Welfare Committee 

"pLDER Joseph E. Geertsen reports 
*"*' the following project which the 
First Quorum of Elders in the 5th 
Ward of Mount Ogden Stake is un- 
dertaking : 

We spent much time and thought in at- 
tempting to work out a project which 
would be both sensible and profitable. Be- 
ing a city ward it appeared that an agri- 
cultural project was impractical. We de- 
cided that, since we are in an urban district 
and surrounded on all sides by farming 
communities which have a surplus that goes 
to waste every year, the members of the 
Elders' quorum, together with their wives, 
would meet at least once a month and 
preserve fruits and vegetables which we 
can obtain for nothing from these farm- 
ing districts. During the months of the 
year when we cannot preserve fruits and 
vegetables we decided to make quilts. 

We sincerely appreciate the assistance 
we receive from our wives. They are al- 
ways willing to help with the project. It 
could not be a success without their work 
and cooperation. Though it may be hard 
to believe, the Elders are doing their share 
of the work in tying and quilting. After 
several hours' work we have a social with 
some form of entertainment, and then serve 
refreshments. The meetings are held in 
the various homes of quorum members. Our 
first meeting had twelve in attendance and 
since then the numbers have increased. All 
who have participated speak very highly 
of the work and the enjoyment they re- 
ceive at these meetings. Some have re- 
quested that we hold them oftener than 
once a month. Thus far we have made 
several quilts and are looking forward to 
the season when we can start preserving 
vegetables and fruits. 



"VITe regret that we failed to send 
"" some literature to the field, ac- 
cording to an announcement made in 
the June Era, p. 61. This was due to 
some unavoidable delays. So it was 
not until June that the General Com- 
mittee made the first shipment to the 
field of any literature. This was a 
booklet entitled Alcohol Talks To 
Youth, which went out to the chairmen 
of stake Melchizedek Priesthood com- 
mittees accompanied by instructions on 
what to do with the shipment. 

This booklet will be read with great 
interest by all into whose hands it 
comes. It is brief, attractively written 
and printed, and brim full of solid facts 
about alcohol that every one — drinker 
or not — will want to know. Alcohol 
tells a story about himself in such a 
charming and truthful way that all, 
young and old, will be delighted on 
reading it. The language of the story is 
simple, clear and eloquent. It is ex- 
pected that every member of the 
Church over twelve years of age will 
be given opportunity to read the book- 


"NJow the question arises — "Is the field 
™ organized to distribute the book- 
let?" The organization recommended 
was outlined in the April Era, p. 232 
and the May Era, p. 296. It is hoped 
that the stake and ward committees 
have all been set up, the Church mem- 
bership in the wards assigned to can- 
vassers, etc. 

As soon as they are ready other 
pieces of literature — booklets, folders, 
etc., will shortly be sent to the field. 
Thus the committees will all have ma- 
terial to keep them busy. Hence every 
stake and ward should organize its 
committee, if this has not been done, 
without further delay. 

The plan calls for a personal contact 
with every member of the Church, cer- 
tainly every one over twelve years 
old, to interest him or her in the cam- 
paign. The book named above will 
appeal to all of these. 

Further, the plan calls for the most 
thorough and complete anti-liquor to- 
bacco crusade ever undertaken in the 
Church. Booklets, folders, leaflets, 
projection machines, billboards, movies, 
radio, magazines and newspapers will, 
it is hoped, all play their part. But the 
whole plan is based upon personal con- 
tact, the primary missionary method of 
the Church. 

So the call is to all stakes, wards, 
Priesthood quorums, and auxiliaries to 
cooperate fully in order that the cam- 
paign may from this time go vigorously 


A n impressive sight was witnessed in 
the Salt Lake Tabernacle on the 
occasion of the Mutual Improvement 
Conference meeting Friday, June 10, 
1938, when four thousand officers and 
teachers of the great M. I. A. enthusi- 
astically and unanimously adopted by a 
standing vote the sentiments and pledge 
reprinted on page 417. 

The great organization that took the 
pledge knew that it was acting in har- 
mony with the attitude of the Church on 
the matters contained in the statement. 
The Church does strongly advocate 
keeping the Word of Wisdom by all 
its members and other people as well. 
The Church is stoutly opposed to smok- 
ing of tobacco and drinking of alco- 
holic beverages and to the persuasive 
and falsifying advertisements of these 

When it is remembered that in 1937 
there was spent in the United States for 
advertising cigarettes the vast sum of 
$30,754,854 and that 137.1 billions of 
cigarettes were sold we get some idea 
of the magnitude of the evil from which 
we would like our people to become 
entirely free. 

We heartily commend the great 
M. I. A. for the firm and loyal stand 
they have taken. And we might add 
that the General Boards of all the aux- 
iliary organizations are likewise heart- 
ily cooperating in the Church-wide 
anti-liquor-tobacco campaign. 

■ ♦ » 

Another interesting instance of ac- 
complishment for the Priesthood comes 
from Mantua, Box Elder Stake. When 
the subject of a Priesthood quorum pro- 
ject was first proposed, many of the 
brethren thought that such a project 
would hardly be worth-while because of 
the fact that the dry land of that section 
could yield not more than from 12 to 
15 bushels to the acre, and irrigated 
land seemed to be entirely unavailable. 
Moreover, it appeared that in the sum- 
mer time able-bodied men were over- 
crowded with work, and so the ques- 
tions naturally arose: "Why have pro- 
jects when the busy people would be 
burdened with more work? Would 

it not be cheaper to make additional 
donations in cash?" Besides, some said 
it is too late to start farming now. 

The ward Welfare committee de- 
cided, however, to present the matter 
to the High Priests, Seventies, and 
Elders in their Sunday morning Priest- 
hood class. This group decided to call 
a special meeting of all the Priesthood, 
both Melchizedek and Aaronic. Pres- 
ident William C. Horsley and Bishop 
Anton M. Hansen of the stake com- 
mittee were invited to attend. At this 
meeting it was learned that 30 acres of 
dry farmland and two acres of irrigated 
land could be secured with the under- 
(Concluded on page 424) 



Melchizedek Priesthood 

{Concluded [com page 422) 

standing that the water assessment be 
worked out on the irrigated land. The 
brethren decided that the cultivating 
and planting of the land was not only 
practical but desirable, because they 
believed that by bringing the brethren 
together as a group they would develop 
a fraternal spirit as well as produce 
food for those who might be in need. 
A ward work director was asked to 
make the necessary arrangements for 
the land and to call on the men who 
would be needed to cultivate and plant 
the crop. The 30 acres of wheat were 
planted first, and then work was im- 
mediately started on the potato land, 
and at the proper time the potatoes 
were planted. In the fall, crops were 

In addition to these two projects, 
others in the ward, and particularly the 
bishop, made a liberal donation of ap- 
ples, of which he had a surplus crop. 
These were harvested by quorum mem- 
bers. It was then discovered that there 
were some shade trees that needed to 
be removed, and these were up-rooted, 
moved away, and a wood project in- 
augurated. For the most part these 
projects were carried on by quorum 
members at a time when they were 
extremely busy. They made a real 
sacrifice, but they worked cheerfully, 
unitedly, and industriously, and a spirit 
of brotherliness and love was created 
which repaid many times over for the 
sacrifices which they made. 

As a result of the projects they pro- 
duced 170 bushels of wheat, 25,145 
pounds of potatoes, and 1,600 pounds 
of winter apples which were turned 
over to the stake storehouse to assist 
in carrying on the Welfare plan. Dur- 
ing the past winter a number of families 
who were the recipients of the foods 
produced in these projects were able 
to assist in other ward activities in re- 
payment of the commodities which they 
received. The ward population in the 
Mantua Ward is 375 persons. Of 
this number 94 members participated 
in the projects, and the enthusiasm was 
so irresistible that two men who were 
not members of the Church asked per- 
mission to join in and help. 

In concluding their report the Man- 
tua Ward committee says: "We feel 
that this Church Welfare plan is one 
of the most progressive things the 
Church has ever introduced. We are 
profoundly grateful for the experiences 
we have had during the past season." 


By Elder Melvin J. Ballard 
\kjz are anxious that we build Priest- 
"* hood quorums into a brotherhood. 
The quorum committees suggested, if 
active, would provide everything that a 
fraternity or brotherhood, or even a 
lodge, offers to men. We have no quar- 
rel with lodges for the other fellow, but 
we have no need of lodges in this 
Church, because the Priesthood quo- 


rum offers everything that a lodge 

The quorum miscellaneous commit- 
tee deals with the social life of the 
quorum. Social life is important to 
make for fraternity. Men get better 
acquainted in one social evening than 
probably in half a dozen quorum meet- 
ings. A social brings the wives of 
the brethren into activity. The wife 
if she becomes interested, can do much 
to stimulate and inspire the husband 
to activity in his quorum. At least once 
every three months there should be 
a quorum social function. If it is often- 
er, even once a month, it would not 
hurt; but certainly a quorum that goes 
a year without a social function is not 
very much alive or alert or awake. 
We urge that you utilize the social op- 
portunities of your quorum through the 
miscellaneous committee, to create that 
closer contact, better fellowship, good 
feeling, and human interest in each 
other, which came through social ac- 

Music stimulates interest. The 
Church music committee has author- 
ized the publication of a little volume 
of songs, compiled by J. Spencer Corn- 
wall, a member of our committee and 
the leader of the Tabernacle Choir, 
entitled "Sacred Choruses For Male 
Voices." This arrangement of some 
seventy-five songs is available at the 
Deseret Book Company at 75c a copy 
or $8.00 a dozen. These are splendid 
arrangements of our own songs and 
suitable choruses for male voices. With 
this help it would be easily possible 
for a group of Elders or Seventies or 
High Priests to present a fine chorus. 
The man with a good voice who has 
not been coming to quorum meetings 
may be invited to join a quorum quar- 

tet, might be reached through the so- 
cial activities of the quorum and in a 
musical way. 

The Church music committee has 
provided for the Church choirs a con- 
siderable amount of music, suitable for 
the maintenance not only of singing 
groups in the quorum, but also for 
ward choirs. This material will be 
found at the Deseret Book Company. 
Please become familiar with and utilize 
it. Choirs must have new music to be- 
come interested and to supply the peo- 
ple with new and interesting music. 

The Lord has said, at the conclusion 
of Section 107 in the Doctrine and 


Wherefore, now let every man learn 
his duty, and to act in the office in which 
he is appointed, in all diligence. 

He that is slothful shall not be counted 
worthy to stand, and he that learns not 
his duty and shows himself not approved 
shall not be counted worthy to stand. 

Our right and title to these blessings 
is in jeopardy unless we see to it as 
shepherds of the flock that we save 
these men, by providing them with ac- 
tivity, by keeping them interested, by 
having their lives subscribe to their 
professions — for no man should re- 
ceive this Priesthood without oath and 
covenant that he will personally live 
up to the standards of the High Priest, 
the Seventy, or the Elder, and will 
magnify his calling. When we ordain 
men to the Priesthood we should im- 
press upon them that they are enter- 
ing into a sacred covenant. I would 
not object to having them lift up their 
hands and make the covenant before 
their brethren, as they receive the 
Priesthood, that they will try to live 
up to all Priesthood requirements. 


Text: The Word of Wisdom — A Modern Interpretation, by John A. 
Widtsoe and Leah D. Widtsoe. 


Grains as Food 

(First Part of Chapter 12) 

Note to Class Leaders: The following 
lesson may be given in a somewhat shorter 
period and the extra time taken for a 
review of some other lesson which may 
have been given hurriedly. 

I. Grains as "Staff of Life." 

1. Their general use since prehistoric 

2. Increased use as agriculture im- 

3. Keeping qualities. 

4. Economy of use. 

5. Source of energy. 

II. Composition of Grains. 

1. Contain the six classes of food con- 

2. Proportions differ in different 

3. Good source of body minerals. 

4. Rich in vitamin content. 

5. Protein good but not always the 

III. Variety of Grains. 

1. Different grains used in different 

2. Reasons for varying use. 

3. Analysis different grains. 

IV. Breakfast Cereals. 

1. Whole grain. 

2. Highly milled. 

3. Why whole-grain products are 
better food. 

Questions, Problems, Projects 

1. Where are grains most used as human 
food? Where is their use limited? Why is 
this so? 

2. What is the meaning of the term 
"Staff of Life"? What foods best fit that 
requirement? Discuss the reasons therefor. 

3. In what food principle are grains most 
lacking and how may this deficiency be 
met? What is the danger if cereal foods 
form too largely the bulk of the diet? 

4. Why should whole grain foods and 
cereals be given the preference for normal 

5. Make a survey of your family food 
for the past month and report on its ade- 
quacy regarding the necessary food min- 
erals and vitamins so necessary for good 
nutrition. Why are grain products — if used 
properly — so valuable to those who have 
a limited income as well as for those whose 
budget for food is more liberal? 

6. Report on the cost of the devitalized 
or packaged grain products you may use 
in your family for one week as compared 


with the cost of natural, unmilled grains. 
What do you pay for a bushel of grain 
in the form of packaged breakfast cereal? 


Carbohydrate Foods 
(Second Part of Chapter 12.) 

I. Starch and Sugar. 

1. All food carbohydrates are starches 
or sugars. 

2. Starch is made up of simple sugar 

3. All food carbohydrates except milk 
sugar are formed in the vegetable 

II. Digestion of Starch. 

1. Most starch-containing foods 
should be well-cooked. 

2. In digestion starch is changed into 
component simple sugars. 

3. Using sugar with starchy food is 
dietetic duplication. 

4. Duplicating sugar and starchy food 
is a dietetic indiscretion. 

5. The liver is the great regulator and 
storage plant of sugar in the body. 

6. Carbohydrate excess, stored as 
fatty tissue in the body. 

7. Mixtures of starchy and fat foods 
difficult to digest. 

8. Danger from overeating carbohy- 
drate food especially by those with 
limited food budget. 

III. Sugar as Food. 

1. Use of sugar in past centuries. 

2. Ease of manufacture has increased 

3. Most highly concentrated food 
eaten by man. 

4. Over-use in the United States. 

5. As used today sugar is not a natural 
but a manufactured product. 

IV. Advantages of Sugar as Food. 

1. An energy food needed by the body 
in very small amount as a simple 
sugar (glucose). 

2. Blood contains one part glucose to 
one thousand. 

3. As nature prepares it, often mixed 
with valuable minerals. 

4. Used in natural state by Nature 
people; not so in modern manu- 

5. Cheap, clean, easy to handle and 

V. Disadvantages of Sugar as Food. 

1. Too concentrated; causes an ac- 
quired taste. 

2. Contains no building food (protein) 
mineral matter or vitamins. 

3. Is distinctly habit-forming. 

4. Many dangers from over use: 

a. Irritates the lining of alimentary 

b. Tends to cause gas formation; 

c. Deadens the appetite for other 
much needed food. 

5. If used too freely the liver and 
kidneys overworked and affected 

6. Candy as human food — its proper 
use and dangers. 

VI. The Pancreas in Sugar Digestion. 

1. Active principle is insulin. 

2. Necessary to enable tissues to burn 
(oxidize) sugar brought by blood. 

3. When over-worked,' diabetes may 

4. Great increase of diabetes in the 
United States. 

VII. Wisdom in Use of Carbohydrate 

1. The Word of Wisdom points the 

2. Use of natural foods. 

Questions, Problems, Projects 

1. Explain how and why starches and 
sugar duplicate each other in human di- 

2. Review the manufacture and use of 
sugar as human food. 

3. Refer to the statement made by Mc- 
Collum on page 180 of the text. Discuss 

4. Why is fat not always a sign of 
health? What warning do you receive 
from the picture on page 178? 

5. Enumerate the disadvantages and 
dangers in the over-use of carbohydrate 
foods, especially those of sugar. How may 
these findings of science improve the dietary 
of your family and others? 

6. How and why should the "soda foun- 
tain habit" be controlled? What rule 
should be applied to everyone, to children 
especially, in the use of candy as food? 

7. How may wisdom be shown in the 
use of carbohydrate food. Discuss, and 
apply to the diet of yourself and friends. 


"Wheat For Man" 
(First Part of Chapter 13) 

I. Wheat as Human Food. 

1. Contains all necessary food prin- 
ciples but not in needed propor- 

2. May well be termed "a staff of 

3. Use in past centuries. 

4. Use today. 

II. Structure and Composition: See il- 
lustration on page 186. 

1. Bran, germ and endosperm. 

2. Bran and germ rich in minerals 
and vitamins. 

3. Inner portion or endosperm con- 
tains starch and glutin. 

4. Most valuable portions — the bran 
and germ — often discarded and fed 
to animals. 

5. Comparison between composition 
of whole wheat, white flour and 

III. The Milling of Wheat. 

1. For use as breakfast foods and 

2. Reasons for the refining process. 

3. Results of the refining process. 

4. Advantages and disadvantages of 
world-wide shipping facilities. 

IV. White Bread as Food. 

1. Advantages. 

2. Contains practically no vitamins 
and little of food minerals. 

3. Opinions as to its value vary, 
though its use is almost universal. 

4. Nutrition experts agree that if used 
vitamins, minerals and roughage 
must be supplied from some other 

5. The dangers from such advice. 
(See p. 189.) 

V. Use of hot breads. 

1. Often used to excess. 

2. Combinations with fat or sugar, 
especially if underdone, difficult of 

3. Dr. Rose's advice. 

4. Wisdom and knowledge needed. 

Questions, Problems, Projects 

1. Why is wheat a good food for man? 
Describe the composition and structure of 
the wheat kernel. 

2. Give a survey of the use of wheat as 
human food — in ancient times and today. 

3. Analyze the table showing wheat con- 
tent found on page 187. 

4. What is your opinion regarding the 
present practice of milling wheat into the 
high patent flour? What are the ad- 
vantages and disadvantages thereof? 

5. How may white bread become a 
"broken staff of life"? What precautions 
must be taken to prevent it? 

6. Why is flour bleached? Describe the 
process and the bleaching agent used in 
your nearest mill. What is your opinion 
of this practice? 

7. If possible, visit your nearest flour mill 
and give a report of your findings. 


Made by The First Council of the Seventy to The Council of the Twelve Apostles 

For the Month of April, 1938 

Missionary Activities April April 

1938 1937 

1. Evenings or part days spent in missionary work 7,406 5,528 

2. Hours spent in missionary work 16,834 12,161 

3. Number of calls made ._ 12,653 9,387 

4. Number of first invitations in 4,360 3,257 

5. Number of revisits 4,499 2,677 

6. Number of Gospel conversations _ 13,149 9,070 

7. Number of standard Church works distributed (Does not include Books of Mormon 

reported under Item No. 10) _ 357 568 

8. Number of other books distributed 408 353 

9. Number of tracts and pamphlets distributed 14,592 10,027 

10. Copies of Book of Mormon actually sold _ 241 89 

11. Number of hall meetings held by missionaries 232 212 

12. Number of cottage meetings held by missionaries 685 561 

13. Number of missionaries who attended cottage and hall meetings 2,132 1,978 

14. Number of investigators present at cottage and hall meetings 2,737 1,729 

15. Number of baptisms as a result of missionary work 151 96 

(1) Of people over 15 years of age 73 

(2) Of people under 15 years of age: 

a. Both of whose parents are members 37 

b. Others under 15 years of age 22 

Classification not designated 19 

16. Number of inactive members of Church brought into activity through stake missionary 

service during the month 329 329 

Additional Information 

Number of stakes in the Church 122 118 

Number of stake missions organized 118 112 

Missionaries Actively Engaged 

Number of stakes reporting _ _ 102 83 

Number of districts - 368 267 

Elders 236 200 

Seventies 1,337 887 

High Priests _ „ 275 166 

Women 315 1 94 

Total 2 , 1 89 1 ,447 

Special Items op Interest 

Visits in connection with stake missionary work were made by members of the First Council of the Seventy 
to 19 stakes during the month of April. 

Interviews were held in the office of the First Council with 16 stake presidents and stake mission 
presidents during the month of April. 



U)wixL Jswudwiitk TYbiAikjaxjsL #&l (hiqiud, 7938 


As Latter-day Saints a great responsibility has come to us. As mem- 
** bers of the Church of Jesus Christ we have assumed the responsibility 
of living clean, virtuous lives, of discharging certain duties in the Church, 
of sharing with our brethren and sisters who are not so fortunate as our- 
selves and of making our actions in every way possible reflect the teachings 
of the Gospel. 

Above all, we have the great responsibility of so conducting our daily 
lives that our actions will reflect credit to the Church, that the truths of 
Mormonism shall be demonstrated, and that others may see our good works 
and "glorify our Father which is in Heaven." 

In a world such as that in which we live today, this is not an easy task. 
We must be on guard every moment against snares and temptations. The 
ways of the world seem pleasant and attractive. They are much easier to 
follow than the ways of the Lord. But Latter-day Saints have a responsi- 
bility that does not rest upon other people. To us much has been given; 
therefore much is expected. We have been blessed abundantly and we 
shall be blessed even more abundantly if we follow the teachings of the 
Gospel and reflect credit upon the Church to which we belong. 

Latter-day Saints are expected to be exemplary citizens. All that is 
stated or implied in the Articles of Faith, in the Ten Commandments, in 
the Word of Wisdom, it is our obligation to observe to the utmost of our 
ability. And that obligation, because of conditions which now exist in the 
world, is more definite and more serious than ever before. The eyes of the 
world are upon us. Our beliefs and principles are being brought to the 
attention of the people of the world as never before. Our great responsi- 
bility is to make our practices square with the principles which the world 
knows now, more than ever before, the Church teaches. 


Tn The Improvement Era for April in 
■"■ the article entitled "The Teacher 
Watches Over the Church Always," 
by President David O. McKay, two 
paragraphs are again called to the at- 
tention of Ward Teachers. They read 
as follows: 

To give help, encouragement, and in- 
spiration to every individual is the great 
responsibility and privilege of Ward Teach- 

I believe that in Ward Teaching there 
is one of the greatest opportunities in all 
the world to awaken in those who are 
negligent, discouraged, down-hearted, and 
sad, renewed life and a desire to re-enter 
into activity in the Church of Jesus Christ. 
By such activity they will be led back into 
the spiritual atmosphere which will lift their 
souls and give them power to overcome 
weaknesses which are now shackling them. 

Undoubtedly the revelations given to 
us in this dispensation were given in a 
full realization of the conditions which 
would confront the Church in these 
times. Undoubtedly it was foreseen 
that the time would come when ex- 
ternal influences would lead many of 
our people away from spirituality and 
Church activity and into paths of in- 
difference if not actual sin. 


No movement in the Church is more 
fundamental to the welfare, unity, and 
progress of the Church than the plan 
of monthly visits to the homes of the 
Saints. No movement carries with it a 
more definite opportunity to exercise 
the power and influence of the Priest- 

Therefore, when a Teacher is called 
and assigned to a district as a Ward 
Teacher he is called to a definite mis- 
sion as truly as though he were asked 
to leave his home and family and labor 
in another city or another country. 

When such a call comes there comes 
with it the responsibility to look after 
the individual welfare of every member 
residing within that district. To look 
after one's welfare, to be responsible 
as a shepherd is responsible for his 
sheep, to see that there is no iniquity, 
neither hardness with each other, 
neither lying, nor backbiting, nor evil- 
speaking and to see that the people 
meet together often and that all mem- 
bers do their duty is a serious and sa- 
cred responsibility. 

It is important — yes, obligatory- — that 
every Teacher visit the homes of his 
district each month. But that alone is 
not enough. In addition the people are 
to be taught the Gospel — that is doubt- 
less the reason these monthly visitors 
are called "Teachers." A monthly 

message, of concern to every member 
of the Church is prepared and provided 
for every Teacher in the Church. To 
read this message in the home or to 
leave it for the members to read (this 
plan has now been definitely discon- 
tinued) is not enough. 

Actually to teach there must first be 
learning and second preparation. It 
is the responsibility of the Ward 
Teacher to study the Monthly Message 
and then from its suggestions prepare 
his own message to deliver to the 
Saints. To read the printed message 
is a poor substitute for real teaching. 

The messages are distributed in ample 
time for distribution nearly a month be- 
fore they are to be used. They should 
be studied thoroughly and then no mat- 
ter how humble the message may be, 
it should become and be given as the 
Teacher's own message. 

In connection with the message, the 
welfare of the family should be in- 
quired into. They should be encour- 
aged in Church activity to do their 
duty; they should be cheered and com- 
forted in time of sorrow and affliction. 
The teacher watches over the Church 
(and to the individual teacher that 
means the members of his district) al- 

That is the great responsibility of 
the Teacher in addition to his great 
responsibility as a member of the 
Church himself as suggested in the 
Ward Teacher's Message for August, 
printed on this page. 


f\F the total of 46,275 members of 
^^ the Aaronic Priesthood between 
the ages of 12 and 20, 9,305 are now 
regularly engaged in Ward Teaching. 
While this figure is slightly lower than 
the high mark reached in 1936, it is 
well above the five-year average and 
represents slightly more than 20% of 
all the Aaronic Priesthood in regular 

As Deacons represent approximately 
40% of the total group, the percentage 
of Priests and Teachers engaged in 
Ward Teaching is approximately 32%. 

Stakes with the highest number of 
Aaronic Priesthood quorum members 
acting as Ward Teachers are: 

Ogden 238 

Cottonwood ....208 

Rexburg 187 

Hyrum 172 

Salt Lake 160 

Logan 159 

Smithfield 159 

Pioneer 155 

Box Elder 146 

Pocatello 143 

No. Weber .140 

Cache 139 

Weber 136 

Bear River. 131 

From several stakes come reports of 

excellent success from the efforts of 

(Concluded on page 428) 


'V' 0111 * first duty in life is toward your 
■*■ afterself. So live that your after- 
self — the man you ought to be — may 
in his time be possible and actual. 

Far away in the years, he is waiting 
his turn. His body, his brain, his soul 
are in your hands. He cannot help 
himself. What will you leave for him? 

Will it be a brain unspoiled by lust 
or dissipation, a mind trained to think 
and act, a nervous system true as a 
dial in its response to the truth about 

Will you, boy, let him come as a 
man among men in his time? Or will 
you throw away his inheritance be- 
fore he has had a chance to touch it? 

Will you turn over to him a brain 
distorted, a mind diseased, a will un- 
trained, a spinal cord grown through 
and through with the devil grass of 
that vile harvest we call wild oats? 

This is your problem in life — the 
problem of more importance to you 
than any or all others. How will you 
meet it, as a man or as a fool? 

When you answer this, we shall 
know what use the world can make 
of you. — (By the late David Starr 
Jordan, o[ Stanford University.) 


T~\eacons of the Sandy Second Ward 
were given double honor recently, 
when a banquet was held in their honor 
at the home of Dr. C. C. Jensen, at 
which they were given the honor and 
privilege of shaking hands with a man 
who, in his early life, had had the priv- 
ilege of shaking hands with President 
Abraham Lincoln. The guest was John 
Braxton Sanders of Ashton, Idaho, a 
former bishop and High Councillor in 
the Lost River Stake. 

Elder Sanders grew to young man-' 
hood near Springfield, Illinois, home of 
President Lincoln, and while a boy of 
14, he had the honor of shaking hands 
with the President. He related in- 
stances in his early life as a part of the 


In the picture reading from left to right, back 
row: Dr. C. C. Jensen, member of the East Jordan 
Stake High Council; David J. Borg, First Counselor in 
the Sandy Second Ward Bishopric; Cleleo L. Jensen, 
President Deacons' Quorum; Stanley A. Rasmussen, 
Bishop; Jay Martineau; Reed Sanderson, Second 
Counselor. Richard Webb. 

Second row: Robert Denny, Keith Gillen, Brother 
Sanders, Richard Dalton. 

Front row: Wayne Sundberg, Jack Borg, and 
Blaine Anderson. Ruel McPhie, Dr. Jensen's grand- 
son, sitting on Mr. Sanders' lap. Two members of 
the quorum were excused: Oral Birch and Jack 
Wennerstrom; two were in quarantine: Udell Webster 
and Gordon Green. Gordon Ohlson, quorum super- 
visor, was not present. 


program, and urged the Deacons to be 
honest in all their dealings and to follow 
the teaching and example of the great 


"^T early 400 persons attended the an- 
•^ nual banquet and rally of the 
Aaronic Priesthood of Maricopa Stake 
held recently at Mezona Hall in Mesa. 
Of the group 315 members of Aaronic 
Priesthood quorums were guests of the 
stake presidency, the High Council, and 
the Aaronic Priesthood committees, 
with the Relief Society preparing and 
serving the banquet. 

Elder Lorenzo Wright, chairman of 
the stake Aaronic Priesthood commit- 
tee (since made president of the stake 
which was recently divided) was 
master of ceremonies. The program 
was provided by quorum members. 
The attendance prize went to Gilbert 
Ward with 85% present. The presen- 
tation was made by Elder Frank T. 
Pomeroy. President J. R. Price, then 
stake president, but now president of 
the new Phoenix Stake, addressed the 
assembly, encouraging all members to 
continue in good works. 


A letter from President Charles C. 
"^ Heaton of Kanab Stake indicates 
encouraging progress in Adult Aaronic 
Priesthood work. In two wards, which 
have joined in this project, a class of 
29 members is making rapid strides. 
President Heaton writes: "It is mar- 
velous to see the attitude of these men 
and the seeming desire they have to 
learn and become useful in the wards 
in which they live, and the splendid 
attendance at the weekly meetings. 
Our missionaries that have caught the 
spirit of their calling are doing a very 
fine work with this group." 


"P\eacons of Gilmer Park Ward in 
Bonneville Stake have made their 
contribution toward the preparation for 
building a new chapel by devoting a day 
to a general clean-up of the newly-ac- 
quired site for the ward building. The 
Deacons were carefully organized and 
ward officers report that the work as- 
signed to them was well done. 



(Concluded from page 426) 

these young brethren in visiting the 
homes of the Saints. 


^T early a thousand adult members of 
the Aaronic Priesthood are now 
acting as Ward Teachers, it is indi- 
cated in the report for the first quarter 
of 1938, just issued by the Presiding 
Bishopric. The exact number is 993. 
In view of the lack of information re- 
garding adult activity from several 

stakes it is doubtless fair to assume 
that probably more than a thousand 
are now engaged in Ward Teaching 

Leading stakes of the Church in num- 
ber of adults acting as Ward Teachers 
headed by Salt Lake Stake, pioneers in 
the Adult Aaronic Priesthood move- 
ment, are: 

Salt Lake 44 

Hyrum 41 

Duchesne 39 

Oquirrh 33 

Pioneer 25 

Liberty 24 

Parowan 23 

Logan 22 

St. Johns 21 

Lyman 20 


A Monthly Presentation of Pertinent Information Regarding the 

Lord's Law of Health 


Reprinted from Allied Youth 
and newspaper reports. 

'"Inhere is a robbery every 10 min- 
utes, a burglary every 2 minutes, 
a larceny every 44 seconds, and a case 
of automobile theft every 2^ minutes. 
We have heard from self-styled ex- 
perts on criminology that crime is defi- 
nitely on the decrease. Unfortunately, 
crime is not decreasing and criminals 
are not reforming." In an increasing 
number of these crimes, alcohol is 
identified as a factor. 

Without attempting to record or an- 
alyze crime statistics, it can be said 
that offenses, from breaking windows 
to murder, can and have been all too 
frequently traced to drinking; that as 
the consumption of liquor increases, as 
the bars are lowered, there is more and 
more crime traceable to liquor. 

A boy of 17 bought 19 beers and 
two whiskies in a tavern — it is against 
the law to sell liquor to minors — and 
after paying his bill went upstairs and 
held up a lodger. He was sent to prison. 
Action is being taken against the tav- 

N. Y., Dr. James H. Wall found that 
71 had one or more relatives who used 
alcohol to excess, and 27 had alco- 
holic fathers. The average age for be- 
ginning to drink was 18, but many be- 
gan earlier. 

Youth must remember, in reading the 
subtly appealing advertisements in 
magazines, on billboards, and in color- 
ful electric signs, that right there is 
much of the cause of crime. They 
must remember that no matter how 
beautiful and appealing this advertising 
is, and no matter how much attention 
is diverted to the ineffectiveness and 
concurrent lawbreaking of the prohi- 
bition amendment, liquor itself, when 
drunk— and that is its only purpose — 
is a criminal, that it cannot be sep- 
arated from the responsibility for crime. 

The Potawatomi Indians voted by 
a big majority against permitting the 
sale of 3.2 beer on their reservation the 
other day. "Beer will make trouble 
for the Indians," said a brave. 

This advertisement recently appear- 
ed in a newspaper: "Wanted — a bar- 
tender. Must be total abstainer." 

Murders committed under the in- 
fluence of liquor are much too com- 
mon, officials complain. One judge re- 
cently in commenting on such a case 
pointed out that after all it wasn't the 
man — who was so befuddled by liquor 
that he didn't know right from wrong, 
didn't know what he was going to do — 
but the liquor itself, which committed 
the murder. 

In a study of 100 male alcoholics at 
Bloomingdale Hospital, White Plains, 

Beer sales increased 16,000 barrels in 
January 1938, over January 1937. The 
total number of barrels sold was 

A standard test for intoxicated 
drivers that will be accepted by the 
courts and insure convictions if guilty 
is urged by Traffic Director William A. 
Van Duzer, of the District of Colum- 

Records of the District of Columbia 
police department show 19,091 arrests 
for drunkenness for the fiscal year end- 
ing March 1, 1938. This is an average 
of 52 per day. 

The Church Moves On 

[Continued from page 415) 


A team of Mormon missionaries, the 
*"*■ Catford Saints, won the National 
Basketball Championship of Great 
Britain, at the Empire Pool and Sports 
Arena, Wembley, April 19th, and were 
awarded the British National Basketball 
trophy, and special suits, displaying 
the Union Jack, and individual mem- 

The members of the winning team 
were Elders S. Bruce Hanks, Marvin 
J. Ashton, Parry D. Sorensen, Edmund 
M. Evans, DeLos A. Rowe, Owen P. 
Gladwell, Paul Howells, W. Burt Bux- 
ton, and Glenn H. Grimmett. 

A basketball team, representing Eng- 
land, and composed of nine American 
Mormon missionaries, wearing the Brit- 
ish Union Jack, won the International 
Basketball Tournament (Grand Tour- 
noi International de Basketball) at 
Lille, France, during the week of 
May 6. 

Sunday, April 24, 1938. 

Heber C. Kimball was sustained as 
bishop of the Eighteenth Ward, En- 
sign Stake. 

Pres. Heber J. Grant dedicated the 
chapel in the Omaha Branch of the 
Western States Mission. 

The Moon Lake Stake was organized 
with Edwin L. Murphy as president. 

The Duchesne Stake was reorgan- 
ized with Heber Moon as president. 

The Price Ward, Carbon Stake, 
was divided. O. F. Guymon was 
sustained as bishop of Price First 
Ward and Don Clayton was sustained 
as bishop of Price Second Ward. 

Sunday, May 1, 1938. 

Pres. Heber J. Grant was the prin- 
cipal speaker at the opening of the old 
West Jordan meetinghouse which has 
been renovated and will be used as a 
hall of relics by the Archibald Gardner 
Camp of the Daughters of Utah Pio- 

Sunday, May 8, 1938. 

The Sixth-Seventh Ward, Pioneer 
Stake, was reorganized with H. Gilbert 
Barton as bishop. 

James Vernon Graves was sustained 
as president of the Mexicans of Salt 
Lake City. 

Sunday, May 15, 1938. 

The Wasatch Ward, Highland 
Stake, was reorganized with Rulon J. 
Sperry as bishop. 

Sunday, May 22, 1938. 

Edwin Q. Cannon was sustained as 
bishop of the Twentieth Ward, Ensign 

(Concluded on page 435) 



President and Treasurer. 

Vice President. 

Secretary and Librarian. 



Assistant Secretary. 

Assistant Treasurer and 
Superintendent of Research Bureau 

Assistant Librarian. 


At a recent Genealogical meeting 
*"* held in the Second Ward, Liberty 
Stake, the following testimony about 
home teaching was given by Mrs. Re- 
becca B.. Hansen. Inasmuch as the 
Genealogical organizations are empha- 
sizing home teaching at this time, this 
story should be an inspiration to our 
many committee members. Here is 
Sister Hansen's story as she told it: 

When I was asked to become ward 
supervisor of the home teaching department 
in the Genealogical organization I was a 
teacher in the seminary and a Relief Society 
supervisor of teachers. I just didn't know 
how to take up this Genealogical work. 
I thought I didn't like Genealogical work 
as well as I did that of the Relief Society 
and seminary teaching. 

After making this calling a matter of 
prayer and deep consideration I attended 
a Union meeting of the Genealogical organ- 
ization. In that meeting one of the speak- 
ers said: "It isn't those things that you like 
to do that you should do, but those things 
that you are called upon to do." I took 
•this statement as an answer to my calling 
to the Genealogical work, and was set apart 
as ward supervisor. 

Sister Orodine Bachman, who was super- 
visor of the home teaching department, 
visited me. She said: "Sister Hansen, if 
you take this calling as supervisor of home 
teaching in the Genealogical organization, 
1 promise you that it will be a blessing to 

you; and you will be able to get your own 
genealogy, and make your Book of Fore- 
fathers; and it will be worth more to you 
than all the money in the world." She also 
said, "My records are worth thousands of 
dollars to me." 

I began my work with a satisfaction in 
my heart that if I was faithful to my calling, 
Sister Bachman's promise would be ful- 

My mother had separated from my own 
father, taking my sister Clarissa, less than 
four years old, and me, about two years 
old, to make our home with our grand- 
father. My mother married again and I 
know her second husband as my father. 
When I was nineteen years old, I was told 
of my own father whom mother left when 
I was too young to remember. In 1921 my 
mother died. My sister Clarissa visited the 
Church Genealogical Archive and found 
there information of our own grandparents, 
and our father and mother. After that time 
we failed to find any more information on 
my father's line. 

Early this year, when doing my home 
teaching, I visited a home in one of the 
districts and left a pedigree chart and family 
group sheet. I promised to return and help 
the lady in that home fill out the charts I 
gave her. I called again, and didn't find 
anyone home. I seemed to have an urge 
within myself to try to keep in touch with 
that home and make out those charts. One 
day I decided to go right there with one of 
my teachers, and assist in making out the 
charts that I had left. 

I found the lady glad to see us; she 
welcomed us kindly. I said: "I have come 
today to help you fill out the charts I left 

here." She smiled and said, "Perhaps I 
should show you what records I have." She 
began to show me her Book of Forefathers 
and to tell me about her parents and their 
family which were recorded on a family 
group sheet in her book. Her parents and 
family, it appeared, had lived in the same 
town where my sister and I had lived when 
we were tiny girls. I studied the record 
more closely and was surprised when I saw 
my grandmother's name on her family group 
sheet. I asked: "What relation is this 
lady to you?" She answered by saying: 
"She is my great-grandmother." I said: 
"She is my grandmother!" I was almost 
overcome with surprise and joy and I felt 
very weak. I composed myself and ex- 
plained: "You are related to me. At last 
I have found my father's people." 

She turned the pages of her Book of 
Forefathers and I saw my grandfather's and 
grandmother's names with those of their 
two sons, my father and his brother, and 
also my mother's name as my father's wife. 
I asked her what she knew about my father 
and she said: "His wife left him, taking 
her two little girls with her; she had decided 
to live in her father's home again." I said: 
"I am one of those little girls." 

She also told me that my grandfather had 
died while crossing the plains; my grand- 
mother had married again; and a baby girl 
was born from this marriage. That baby 
girl became her grandmother and my fa- 
ther's half-sister, thus making my grand- 
mother her great-grandmother. 

This is my testimony, that when we are 
faithful to our office and calling, a promise 
made to us in righteousness will be ful- 

» » « 



By T. T. Brumbaugh 
{Christian Century; April 20, 1938.) 

. . . There is a growing concern for 
religion as such among students in this 
country and in administrative circles in 
tax-supported and other schools; there is 
enhanced appreciation of the spiritual in- 
terpretation of existence which is the specific 
province of religion. . . . 

Mormons Show the Way 

... In realizing the importance of this, 
■educators are in many places far in advance 
■of religious leaders. In one state university 
1 found that though the campus authorities 
were willing to grant recognition and col- 
lege credit for courses in Bible, church his- 
tory and religious philosophy, the religious 
groups could not get together on a united 

plan. Great was the surprise therefore 
when it was found that the Latter-day 
Saints had met the university's requirements 
in a basic and nonsectarian presentation of 
the Bible and the spiritual interpretation of 
life and were starting such courses of in- 
struction under competent teachers in the 
local Mormon student center recently erect- 
ed near the campus. 

Lest this be taken as an example of un- 
desirable Mormon aggressiveness, it is well 
to add parenthetically that there is no re- 
ligious body in America today more alert, 
progressive and cooperative in the field of 
religious education in academic centers 
than the Latter-day Saints. Whatever may 
be said of its origin and tenets, the present 
leadership of the church, which has such a 
large following in our western states, is 
awake as is perhaps no other denomination 
to the importance of paralleling secular 
education with religious instruction, high in 

intellectual and moral content. And where- 
as some bodies have felt it wise to create 
sectarian schools which parallel the secular 
instruction given in tax-supported schools 
but with a particular religious interpreta- 
tion, the Mormons have seen fit in recent 
years almost to abandon the attempt to 
impart secular education and have concen- 
trated attention on giving religious instruc- 
tion in seminaries and institutes near tax- 
supported high schools, colleges and univer- 
sities. Such "seminaries" are located hard 
by more than ninety public high schools in 
western states, and their "institutes" pro- 
viding religious, educational and social 
equipment and even dormitory accommoda- 
tions are to be found in a dozen large west- 
ern university centers. 

Nor are these to be considered narrow, 
intolerant and exclusive institutions. Where 
high school credit for religious instruction 
(Concluded on page 435) 


General Superintendency 
Y. M. M. I. A. 





Executive Secretary 

General Offices Y. M. M. I. A. 


General Offices Y. W. M. I. A. 



Send all Correspondence to Committees Direct to General Offices 

General Presidency 
Y. W. M. I. A. 





Executive Secretary 

HPhanks for your fine support of the 
A June Conference. It was a glorious 
event, reaching new marks in many 
notable respects. Your attendance, 
your active participation, and your un- 
deviating support made it what it was 
intended it should be — an influence for 
carrying religion into life and building 
better Latter-day Saints. 

Many of the messages of the Con- 
ference will appear in coming issues of 
the Era. 


Ctake Conference Conventions have 
*-* already started. The Executives 
and General Boards of M. I. A. will be 
out to visit you and counsel with you. 
Your "Study Sheets" and other instruc- 
tions should now be in your hands. We 
look forward to these times of meeting, 
planning, and "stock-taking," in a cause 
that merits the best efforts of men and 
pay life's richest rewards — the cause 
of human service in an eternal plan. 


\\7e hope you'll have a full and en- 
" joyable summer — and we hope 
that the M. I. A. summer program will 
contribute much to the fellowship, so- 
ciability, and wholesome development 
among your groups and communities. 


Sitting, left to right, Mission President William 
T. Tew, Elder Bassett T. Wright. Standing, left to 
right: R. Lamont Stevens, 2nd Bass; Morris Ander- 
son, 1st Bass; LaVerne Blake, quartet instructor; 
Theras Q. Allred, 1st Tenor; Leon Phelps, 2nd Tenor. 
Elder Delbert K. Schiess, assistant director, was not 
present when picture was taken. (See story, page 

PAGE 431.) 

PAGE 432.) 


STORY, PAGE 432). 




By Elder Bassett T. Wright M. I. A. 
and Goodwill Program Director 

East Central States Mission 

I Tnder the leadership of President 
**** William T. Tew, Jr., the strength 
of the Mormon position has gained 
rapidly this winter in the East Central 
States Mission as the result of an ex- 
tensive and intensive Goodwill-Fellow- 
ship Campaign of a mission-wide 
character and of the achievement of 
more and better Mutual Improvement 
work. The mission president, whose 
philosophy for successful missionary 
work is the creation of goodwill, rec- 
ognizes the M. I. A. as the key posi- 
tion in the conservation of the youth of 

With these two ideals in mind, Good- 
will and M. I. A., he set up an organi- 
zation last September to carry his plans 
forward. He delegated the mission 
M. I. A. director, Elder Bassett T. 
Wright, as managing director of the 
campaign. Elder Delbert K. Schiess 
was chosen assistant. Four mission- 
aries, Elder R. Lamont Stevens, Theras 
Q. Allred, Morris H. Anderson and 
Leon Phelps, all talented singers, were 
called into the office and trained as a 
quartet by Sister La Verne Blake, a 
talented member of the Louisville 
Branch. Plans were mapped out to 
cover practically every branch in the 
mission as a part of our M. I. A. and 
Goodwill Program and Tour. The 
purpose of the tour was to create good- 
will, allay prejudice, enlighten the pub- 
lic regarding the Mormon position, 
stimulate members and leaders in the 
branches of the Church, lend moral 
support and encouragement to mission- 
aries and create a feeling of fellowship 
and religious tolerance among all peo- 
ple. The central theme of our activ- 
ities was to preach the Gospel in an 
attractive, soul-gripping manner and to 
do all we could to open up new ave- 
nues for the missionaries to follow in 
their efforts to convert the people to 
the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ. 
Thousands have been touched during 
the tour. Missionaries report that they 
are received more favorably and with 
greater respect. 

The following gives the number of 
engagements filled during the tour of 
the past five months: 

Conference sessions, Branch and District 90 
M. I. A. Conventions and various ses- 
sions thereof 21 

Banquets, M. I. A 12 

Colleges, Universities, Business Colleges 40 

High Schools 49 

Hall Meetings, Courthouses, City 
Halls, Open air meetings with em- 
ployees 30 

Radio Broadcasts, 15 minute programs.... 75 
Clubs, Civic, Professional, various sim- 
ilar organizations 51 

Hotels, appearances before guests 5 

Radio Addresses, President William T. 
Tew, Jr 5 

Hospitals, singing and speaking to pa- 
tients and guests, nurses 6 

Y. M. C. A. to members and guests with 

speaking and singing 3 

Other churches, singing and speaking.... 11 

Miscellaneous, state conventions, etc.... 2 

The newspapers have cooperated in 
helping us accomplish our purpose. Ap- 
proximately 85 news articles were 
published, occupying about 1 800 square 
inches of space, free of cost. 

It is estimated that over 75,000 have 
heard some phase of Mormonism 
through the 400 engagements as fol- 

Conference Sessions 1 1,000 

M. I. A. Conventions 2,750 

M. I. A. Banquets 1,000 

Colleges, Universities 17,750 

High Schools 30,000 

Hall meetings 3,850 

Clubs, civic organizations 4,700 

Hotels 500 

Hospitals - 1 ,000 

Y. M. C. A 800 

Other Churches 1,525 

Other engagements 500 


The cause of the Youth of Zion has 
been promoted through M. I. A. activ- 
ities. President Tew at the beginning 
of the M. I. A. year said: "Save the 
youth of Zion and you save the Church. 
At the point of properly educating the 
youth the Church succeeds or perishes. 
It is our duty to see that the young 
people are properly taught the beauties 
of the Gospel truths." (See photo, 
layout, page 430.) 

will be developed if we enlist the co- 
operation of all of them in our home 
beautification program. That back 
yard can become a haven of beauty and 
inspiration if we put forth a concerted 

Our stake and ward groups are now 
active in presenting a forum or educa- 
tional meet in each community. Let us 
be sure to join these groups and assist in 
these delightful programs. One com- 
munity is building a new park, and a 
local Adult group is cooperating to 
make an unusual community rose gar- 
den in it. What is your group doing 
toward our Adult beautification pro- 
ject, which is developing in all our 
communities? In addition to our own 
Adult class program let us join in the 
ward, stake, or Church programs and 
feel the thrill that comes with the 
knowledge that we are actively par- 
ticipating in something worthwhile. 

Axel A. Madsen and Grace C. Neslen, chairmen; 
Richard L. Evans, Dr. L. A. Stevenson, Aurelia 
Bennion, Gladys E. Harbertson. 

/^Vne month of summer has already 
*~* passed and we are wondering how 
many Adults have been enjoying the 
outlined summer program. What fun 
it will be to begin at once to plan that 
summer picnic with our families. Watch 
the joyous enthusiasm of the children as 
they assist in the planning of such an 
outing. By all means we will want to 
spend at least one night with them out 
under the stars, where the heavens will 
take on a new meaning to all of us. In 
what other way can one draw so close 
to the infinite? We parents scarce 
realize how complimented our chil- 
dren and their friends are to have us 
participating with them in horseshoe, 
croquet, softball, and many of the other 
out-door games, which can be played 
right at home. While we are together 
as a family unit let us see how joyous 
and happy we can really make the 
leisure hours of this summer and prove 
to our satisfaction that the family who 
plays together and prays together, stays 

A real appreciation for the beautiful 


"RTarch 26 marked the date that the 
*■** Chicago Stake held its second an- 
nual M Men-Gleaner banquet. This 
stake is only two years old, but to have 
attended the banquet would have con- 
vinced anyone that this organization 
has a mighty fine group of young 
workers. (See photograph, layout, 
page 430.) 

There were one hundred and thirty 
persons in attendance. The banquet 
was held in the recreation room of the 
University Ward Chapel, located on 
the south side of the City of Chicago, 
adjoining the grounds of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 

The entire dinner was prepared by 
the Relief Society sisters of this ward, 
and was served by the Bee-Hive Girls. 


** r pHE Knowledge Seekers" club of 
•*■ Ogden, Utah, was organized in 
1936 by a group of young people for 
the purpose of: First, to study the Gos- 
pel of Jesus Christ; Second, to provide 
a suitable Sabbath pursuit. The club 
meets each Sunday evening after Sac- 
rament meeting, in the homes of mem- 
bers. Names marked ( * ) are the 
charter members, all of which are still 
active members. (See photograph, 
layout, page 430.) 

Reading left to right, front row: 
West Belnap*, Don West*, Lawrence 
Saunders, George London*; second 
row, Eileen Manning, Mildred West*, 
Maurine West, Virginia Smith, Betty 
Smeding, Lois Belnap, Venette Powell, 
Leuella London; third row; Herbert 
Harbertson*, Sidney Noble, Jesse Jen- 
sen*, Lillian W. Cheney*, director 
of classwork; Glen Wade*, Robert 
Dickson, visitor. 




"Decently, President Merrill D. 
**■ Clayson, of the Southern States 
Mission and ten missionaries and 
Saints, sailed to Fort Sumter from 
Charleston. Because of our special 
purpose of going there, they were al- 
lowed the opportunity of taking pic- 
tures of the old west side, where 77 
years ago a cannon-ball coming from 
Ft. Johnson, a Confederate Fort, start- 
ed the great Civil War, which was so 
definitely and exactly prophesied by 
Joseph Smith in 1832, and again in 
1843, recalling the afore-mentioned 

As the sun set, it seemed to bring 
with it the assurance of time, which is 
the greatest vindicator of Divine 

Here, we encircled and sang, "Praise 
to the Man who Communed with 
Jehovah." It was the first Latter-day 
Saint meeting ever to be held upon the 

The President, Merrill D. Clayson, 
read the prophecy on war (Sec. 87 
and Sec. 130:12, 13)— -the causes 
and results. (See picture, layout, page 

The feeling was expressed that at 
some future day, though it is com- 
pletely surrounded by water, this spot 
will become the "Southern Shrine" to 
the Divinity of the Prophet Joseph as 
other monuments are in the east and 
middle west. 

Grouped together and in the purple 
dusk of Southern skies we sang "We 
Thank Thee, O God, For a Prophet." 

This little account, with the spirit in 
which the meeting was held, may give 
you an idea of the coming importance 
of this spot to Church members in the 
south. — Merrill J. Wood. 


7V N attractive program and pictures 
**■ submitted by Elder John H. Taylor 
of the First Council of Seventy, and 
of the Y. M. M. I. A. General Board 
tell the story of a Central States Mis- 
sion Convention and Music Festival, 
held May 28 and 29. The conference 
included field day activities, Gold and 
Green ball, hobby show, music festival, 
and formal meetings, and was reported 
as an undertaking of high merit. ( See 
photo, layout, page 430.) 

■ ♦ 

By Gilean Douglas 

K Moonlight on a shingled roof 

Is a simple thing, 
But far too rich to hem the robe 
Of an earthly king. 

1. 260th Quorum of Seventy with wives at a chop sui dinner, Honolulu, Oahu Stake,, 

2. Cotton Ball, South Georgia District. 

3. Oneida Stake Gleaners. 

4. Long Beach Stake M Men and Gleaner Girls who conducted popular summer 
dances every Tuesday evening for the M. I. A. 

5. M Men-Gleaner Hallowe'en party, Taber, Alberta, Canada. 

6. Priesthood Gathering, Queensland District Conference, Australian Mission. 




TkwA, f& ihsL 7kw 


'"Phe West German Mission became a 
distinct entity August 2, 1937. Fall 
conferences were held, but no' organiza- 
tion was effected until December 2nd 
of the same year, when President 
Philemon M. Kelly and Sister Susan 
G. Kelly were appointed to arrange and 
direct the activities of that mission. 

On January 6, 1938, President and 
Sister Kelly, accompanied by Elders 
Sanford M. Bingham and Fred Wm. 
Babbel, arrived in Frankfurt am Main, 
where they immediately began to select 
headquarters so the work of that mis- 
sion might be directed with as little in- 
convenience as possible. A temporary 
office was secured, making possible the 
adjustment of all pressing matters. 

After much prayerful searching and 
many disappointments a site was found 
which answered our every need and 
was located in one of the choicest sec- 
tions of all Frankfurt. Every neces- 
sary renovation was immediately be- 
gun and we moved in on February 

By day these headquarters look out 
upon the busy river traffic o'f the beau- 
tiful Main. Situated directly at the 
intersection of the Adolf Hitler bridge 
and Schaumain-Kai — one of the city's 
most fashionable residential streets — 
one may see the activities of the city 
without the least disturbance. Along 


of the West German Mission 

both sides of the Main are cool in- 
viting parks where one may relax and 
enjoy the beauty of the scene. Almost 
directly across the river is the unequaled 
and picturesque view of the old city of 
Frankfurt. Although this beauty is en- 
chanting during the daytime, the view 
at night of the entire skyline bathed in 
brilliant lights is unforgettable. 

The home itself is a combination of 
inviting living quarters and modernly 
convenient business offices. Its loca- 
tion on the ground floor makes it easily 
accessible and convenient for the trans- 
action of the mission business. A short 
ten-minute walk enables one to reach 
the railroad station; a shorter time is 
required to reach the heart o'f the city. 
Conveniently situated on the further 
side of the river is the branch meeting- 

Although we entered this new home 
on February 12, it was not until the 
seventeenth of that month that each 
room was adequately equipped to care 
for the needs of the mission, which day, 
February 17, we have termed "Found- 
ers' Day" for West German Head- 

To the original office force have 

been added four capable Elders to 

(Concluded on page 435) 


Seated left to right: Elder Doric E. Black, 

President Philemon M. Kelly, Sister Susan G. Kelly. 

Second row, left to right: Use E. Kraemer, Elder 

Fred Wm. Babbel. Standing, left to right: Elder 

Lloyd C. Pack, Elder Sanford M. Bingham, Elder 
Sterling R. Ryser, Elder J. Richard Barnes. 

An Electric 
Range Makes 

Cooking a 

Joy Instead of 

a Job! 

Ask any housetvtfe 
who cooks electrically. 







Write or call for Snapshot 


Phone Wasatch 5292 

155 South Main Street 

Salt Lake City, Utah 


(B)ixqhawL *lfowiq. 


Counselor in the Box Elder Stake 

Presidency and Chairman of the 

Memorial Committee 

Tt was a glorious day, that 19th of 
A August, 1877. Large crowds of 
people had gathered at the railroad 
station. The president of the Church 
was coming. A new stake in Zion was 
to be born. 

Children lined the way along which 
the procession passed from the station 
to the great bowery constructed for 
the assembling of the Saints. Flowers 
were strewn in the path of the great 
pioneer leader as he journeyed along 
to the meetingplace, showing the great 
love, esteem, and veneration in which 
he was held. 

It was the last visit of President 
Brigham Young to the city which bears 
his name. The address at the con- 
ference was his last public utterance 
before he passed to the great beyond 
just ten days later. The stake organ- 
ization perfected that day was the last 
public act of the great empire builder 
and spiritual leader. 

Such is the background significance 
of the monument erected in Brigham 
City, Utah, to the memory of Brigham 
Young. Begun as an M. I. A. project, 
it rapidly developed into a program 
financed by the city, the county, and 
the people of the ecclesiastical wards 
in the stake and was carried on by a 
committee representing every auxiliary 
organization of the Church, the civic 
clubs, the patriotic organizations, and 
the municipal governments. 

Erected on the plot of ground on 
which stood the old bowery, and now 
officially known as the Brigham Young 
Memorial Park, the monument stands 
boldly out as the central attraction in 
the beautiful landscaping of the park. 
Its shaft of Raymond granite stands 
ten feet nine inches high with basal 
dimensions of four feet six inches by 
eighteen inches. 

On the back of the monument an 
inscription gives the names of the con- 
tributing organizations and on the front 
is a large bronze plaque, the gift of 
the Church and made by artist J. Leo 
Fairbanks. Modeled after one of the 
last and one of the best portraits of 
President Young it shows a face, hardy 
and serious, yet life-like and full of 
sympathy and kindness. 

Etchings in the background depict 
much of the progress of the Church and 
the State. The Indians in their wig- 
wams are shown on one side but on 
the other is shown the activities of the 
conquerors of the desert. The log 
cabin homes of the pioneers are shown 
with the farmer irrigating his lands 
and caring for his sheaves of wheat, 
the covered wagon drawn by oxen 
arriving from the east and its occu- 
pants being welcomed by the ones who 


1. Righy Stake Gold and Green Ball held at River- 
side Gardens. 

2. Melody Review act presented by Sandy Third 
Ward, East Jordan Stake. 

3. Senior Class, Phoenix Second Ward. 

4. Looking up from the base of Frozen American 

5. Mother Rogers' group, Mothers' and Daughters' 

6. Third place winner in the M. I. A. Basketball in 
Argentina, South America. 

7. Father and eight sons; Bundy family of Mt. 
Trumbull, Arizona. 

S. Raft River Stake Independence Day Celebration. 
9. Winners of Soft Ball League, Windsor Ward, 

Timpanogos Stake. 
10. Bishop R. A. Summers of Pasadena Ward, and 

Chiye Terrazawa, Mormon missionary. 


preceded them. And then one sees 
the magnificent temple of God, the 
unique tabernacle, the beautiful capitol, 
the towering business edifices and the 
busy industrial plants, the whole 
backed by the beauty of a mountain 

Below the portrait is the appropriate 
inscription : 

Erected in Honor of BRIGHAM 
YOUNG In Commemoration Of The Out- 
standing Service He Rendered The Inter- 
Mountain West As A Patriot, Pioneer, 
Colonizer, Church Leader And Statesman. 
On This Plot of Ground Aug. 9th, 1877, 
He Delivered His Last Public Address 
When He Organized The BOX ELDER 

A reflecting pool fronts the monument 
and granite seats or benches build the 
whole into one great unit. Thus Brig- 
ham Young is honored in the city which 
bears his name and by the stake whose 
organization constituted his last public 
activity. It is an important step among 
the many others which contribute to 
the fulfilment of the prophecy made 
by Elder George Q. Cannon at the 
funeral services of his leader when he 
said, "The time will come when the 
Latter-day Saints will appreciate him 
as one of the greatest Prophets that 
ever lived." 

The monument was dedicated Aug- 
ust 19th, 1937, the sixtieth anniversary 
of the organization of the Box Elder 
Stake, by President Rudger Clawson 
of the Council of the Twelve. It was 
memorialized at that time by an in- 
spirational address by President David 
O. McKay of the First Presidency. 
Following the dedication the project 
was completed by the addition of the 
benches and planting of the evergreens. 
On June 1st, 1938, the one hundred 
thirty-seventh anniversary of the birth 
of Brigham Young, the plaque was 
placed on the monument and appropri- 
ate exercises held. 

News of the New 
West German Mission 

(Concluded Icom page 428) 

aid in the supervision of the various 
mission activities. Elder J. Richard 
Barnes has been appointed to serve 
as mission bookkeeper. The Sunday 
School and M. I. A. activities are being 
directed by Elder Lloyd C. Pack. The 
progress of the Priesthood and Gene- 
alogical organizations is insured by the 
combined efforts of Elders Doris E. 
Black and Sterling R. Ryser. As from 
the beginning, Sister Kelly has super- 
vised all women's organizations. Now 
the work is rapidly progressing and the 
Saints are cooperating most willingly. 
It is from these new headquarters that 
President M. Douglas Wood and his 
wife, Evelyn Wood, will direct the 
West German Mission activities. 


/"\NE hundred percent enrollment is 
^-^ unusual, but add to this fact one 
hundred percent attendance for an en- 
tire Mutual Improvement season and 
you have a record — a record which 
was established by the Junior Girls of 
Holladay Ward, Cottonwood Stake. 
Under the leadership of Mrs. Irene 
Cannon Lloyd this group of nine girls 
has been present every night of the 
Mutual lesson season of 1937-1938. At 
Christmas time the president of the 
M. I. A. presented the class with the 
reading course book since they had one 
hundred percent attendance and en- 

rollment. At the close of the year, 
each girl received a book of poems. 

Not only did the girls participate in 
the ward activities one hundred percent; 
they turned out one hundred percent 
for both the music festival and the 
Junior Festival. It didn't seem to mat- 
ter that some of the girls had to walk 
over a mile, sometimes even in the 
coldest of weather. One of the girls 
was offered money if she would tend 
her neighbor's children. She refused 
repeatedly to miss her Junior class. 

Although two of the Juniors are not 
members of the Church, they have par- 
ticipated in each activity. Each time 
the Junior class has met, the girls have 
brought with them that grand spirit of 
activity that Juniors possess. 


Department of Education 

(Concluded from page 429) 

is asked and granted, as in most of these 
ninety "seminaries," the public school re- 
quirement that such religious training be 
basic and nonsectarian is fairly met. The 
same is true in the college and university 
centers which fell under my own observa- 
tion. In fact, when I found Methodists and 
Mormons cooperating in such undertakings 
as those at the Universities of Idaho and 
Wyoming, and in the latter place even 
Catholics included, my conclusion ■was in- 
evitably that the Latter-day Saints have 
surpassed some of the rest of us Protestants 
in brotherliness; and that we all might take 
a page from the book of the Mormons in 
regard to supplementing secular education 
with religious instruction in an economic 
yet effective way. 

« ♦ ■ 

The Church Moves On 

(Concluded from page 428) 

President Heber J. Grant dedicated 
a chapel at Philadelphia, Eastern States 


"P\r. John A. Widtsoe delivered the 
baccalaureate address to the 
graduates of Utah Agricultural Col- 
lege, June 5, 1938. 

Bishop LeGrand Richards gave the 
baccalaureate address to the graduates 
of Brigham Young University, June 5, 


XT^" hither Ward Chapel, at 1515 
vv Second East Street, Salt Lake 
City, Utah, was dedicated by President 
David O. McKay on June 5, 1938. 


/"^larence F. Tanner, missionary for 
^* the past eight months in Southern 
California, was killed near Hemet, 
California, when he touched a live wire 
on the edge of a swimming pool. 

Elder Tanner was born in Salt Lake 
City, March 16, 1916. While he was 
attending the University of Utah, he 
served as a member of the Ninth Ward 
Sunday School superintendency. 

WE OITIK . . . 


From Missionary portraits to the largest 


Mail Orders Given Prompt Attention. 


113 Regent St. Salt Lake City, Utah 




(Concluded [com page 413) 

arguments always heard when a per- 
son is defending a doubtful habit is 
the old standby, "personal liberty." 
But nicotine does away with one's 
personal liberty and becomes an in- 
sidious master to its unthinking 
slaves. And as for me, I want to 
assert my personal liberty and stand 
up for my right not to smoke — in 
these days when one is constantly 
offered cigarettes and when huge 
ads proclaim, "Be Nonchalant," and 
"Not a Cough in a Carload." Why 
worry about the cough, if you've no 
intention of smoking the carload? 
And who says, "Ten Million People 
Can't Be Wrong?" They can too. 
A whole shoal of fish may be caught 
in a net — big ones and little ones 
together — but that doesn't prevent 
any one of them from being a poor 

A popular student of a large uni- 
versity gave me his opinion thus: 
"Why do I hate to see a woman 
smoke? Because in most cases it is 
obviously a foolish and pointless af- 
fectation. She acts as though this 
little attempt at sophistication is cer- 
tain to win the plaudits of humanity. 
The girls who smoke for the pleas- 
ure of it are a minimum. Ninety 
per cent of them smoke for the same 
reason they take a drink of liquor — 
it's 'putting on the dog,' 'hot stuff.' 
Anything like that gets me. 

"The sweet young thing lights up, 
inhales luxuriously, assumes a bored 
look, gazing at the world through 
half-closed eyes, and naively im- 

agines that the world is at her feet. 
But it's not. 

"Lots of fellows who are them- 
selves inveterate smokers are loudest 
in their denunciations. Their ex- 
planation is something like this: 
'Well, it just gets me — that's all.' 

"The fact is a woman who smokes 
jars one's sense of the aesthetic. 
Smoking is somehow not feminine, 
and we like women who are thor- 
oughly feminine." 

And so I do not smoke. I would 
rather keep my good health, clear 
complexion, strong, white teeth, 
clean breath, my personal liberty, 
and my self-respect. Also, I shall 
keep my pin money, — or at least I 
shall see that it is spent where it does 
not literally go up in smoke. — Re~ 
printed by permission of the Board 
of Temperance, Prohibition and 
Public Morals, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 


By Agnes Just Reid 

C WEAR if you want to, little girl, 
*~* It's simply up to you, 
But your womanhood is robbed of its 
Every time that you do. 

Smoke if you want to, little girl, 
There's no one to say you "nay," 

The loss of that priceless, fragrant 
Is the only price you'll pay. 

Drink if you want to, little girl, 
It's your affair, we know, 

But civilization follows you 
Whichever way you go. 

• ♦ 

The Last of the 
^Dickens' Boys" 

(Concluded from page 403) 

his share of the booty at Whiskey 
Gap, where the Indians stampeded 
one hundred forty-seven of their 
mules, and burned many of the 
caravan wagons with flaming ar- 

The population of Utah at the 
time of the family's arrival did not 
exceed 20,000. About seven years 
later, in 1870, Mr. Culmer was or- 
dained an Elder in the Church. 

At various times the Culmer 
Brothers controlled twenty-six im- 
portant Utah business enterprises. 
In 1900, when William H. Culmer 
left Salt Lake City, he was superin- 
tendent and part owner of the Car- 
bon Mines, Salt Lake Gilsonite 
Company, Utah Ozokerite Com- 
pany, Assyrian Asphalt Company,. 
Kyune Graystone Company, Mt. 
Stone quarries. Products from all 
these were developed and used by 
the Culmer Paving Company of Salt 
Lake City and Chicago. This Com- 
pany also furnished Kyune stone 
for city and county buildings of Salt 

Culmer was acquainted with 
Brigham Young and many of his 
family. "Brigham Young," he says, 
"was a man of great force, remark- 
able foresight, and splendid exec- 
utive ability, which qualities laid the 
foundation for the substantial 
growth and material prosperity of 
Mormon settlements throughout the 

(Continued from page 409) 

"The animals, led by their Amer- 
ican and Oriental drivers, marched 
down the gang-plank in a most 
docile manner. As soon as they hit 
the solid earth, however, their de- 
meanor suddenly changed. They 
became excited and uncontrollable. 

They reared, kicked, cried, broke 
their halters, tore up the picket lines 
and engaged in other fantastic tricks 
such as pawing and biting each 
other. The Texans, at first amused 
at these antics, became panic- 
stricken and fled." 

Of them their admiring com- 
mander had written — possibly on 
too slight acquaintance: "They are 
the most docile, patient, and easily 
managed creatures in the world and 
infinitely more easily worked than 


mules." But if this little introductory 
demonstration was a disillusioning 
example of their "docile and pa- 
tient" natures, it was certainly no 
less disheartening than the experi- 
ment of acclimating them to the bar- 
ren wastes of the American South- 

Major Wayne had expected a 
great deal of the camels in effecting 
a "lightning charge against unsus- 
pecting Indians;" but in this he was 
sadly disappointed, for the cameleers 
seldom could coax their animals 
above a walk. And, if it is true that 
for some months the Indians scur- 
ried like mad at the sight of these 
huge, squealing, biting, "hump- 
ed horses," it was because of the 
latter's unearthly appearance with 
rider and load perched ten feet above 
their enormous, padded feet. 

HThe next year another caravan of 
about forty more camels were 
brought over, arriving in February, 
1857. Troops of them were sta- 
tioned at the forts in El Paso, Texas,, 
and Fort Bowie, Arizona. Another 
herd was used in packing freight 
across the plains. Twenty-three 
were ordered to Fort Tejon in 
Southern California. 

A subject of much comment was 
the camel's remarkable ability of 
finding adequate subsistence in even 
the most barren country, and his 
gigantic "drink" of water, which 
was enough to last him a week or 
more. His stamina and endurance 
cannot be denied. 

It is not true, as some writers 
have alleged, that the camel experi- 
ment never gave any promise of suc- 
cess. A caravan system had been 


established by the Army, in 1860, 
that has been compared with those 
of the Orient; and every military 
post on the principal trail between 
Texas and California had its quota 
of camels. Certain business firms 
in San Francisco noted their great 
freight-carrying value, and an at- 
tempt was made to introduce them 
for use in Nevada mines. 

But in the end the great "camel 
dream" of the Southwest proved to 
be a total and costly failure. The 
famous reputation these animals had 
on the plains of Asia did not — per- 
haps through no fault of the camel 
— assert itself on the arid wastes and 
lava beds of the American desert. 
Horses and mules hated and feared 
them and many stampedes resulted 
when one of the humped-backed 
brutes chanced to pass too near. A 
general feeling of antipathy pre- 
vailed, which was shared alike by 
men and beasts. 

The mistake seems to have been 
in not importing Oriental drivers 
in sufficient numbers. For it is 
true that nobody seemed capable 
of managing the animals except 
"Greek George" and "Hi Jolly" 
(Philip Tadio) and the other for- 
eign drivers. The teamsters and 
army men lacked the necessary pa- 
tience and understanding to manage 
the spirited and high-strung crea- 
tures. It was like trying to "teach 
an old dog new tricks." No doubt, 
had the experiment been allowed 

more time, the succeeding generation 
of camels would have been more 

Yet, notwithstanding the vexa- 
tions and serious difficulties experi- 
enced by all concerned, there is every 
reason to believe that real and lasting 
success might have been the reward 
of Major Wayne but for one great 
event that dominated everything in 
American history — the Civil War. 
This dealt it its mortal blow, just 
when the enterprise seemed to show 
greatest promise. Wayne resigned 
his commission to take command of 
a squad of Georgia troops, and 
Congress became engrossed with 
more serious matters than camels. 

"\X7hat began as an earnest experi- 
ment resulted in dismal failure. 
As the War raged between the 
North and South, the camels began 
to disappear. Those at Forts Tejon 
and Yuma were taken to Benicia 
and auctioned off to the highest bid- 
ders; others were taken to the great 
Comstock mines, to carry salt. But 
wherever they went, horses and 
mules refused to stay, and disastrous 
runaways frequently occurred. The 
board of aldermen in Virginia City 
adopted a resolution that "no camels 
should appear on the streets except 
between midnight and dawn!" 
Eventually every one of the un- 
wanted beasts was cast adrift on 
the great Arizona desert, where they 
wandered aimlessly, to the vast an- 
noyance of prospectors and team- 

sters, whose horses and cattle were 
constantly being stampeded by sight 
of them. 

The Apaches had, in the mean- 
time, developed a fine taste for camel 
steaks, and many a wandering rem- 
nant of the herd fell victim to the 
warrior's arrows. Regular hunts 
were organized, and as late as 1905, 
some were captured for exhibition 
purposes; later it was not un- 
usual to catch a glimpse of one or 
more of Greek George's "ships of 
the desert" streaking across the sand 
of the creatures he had come to 
hate and fear. 

It is extremely unlikely that there 
are any survivors today; but until 
life itself flickers out, the veteran 
prospector, as he trudges the deso- 
late solitudes between ancient claim 
of yesterday and hopeful strike of 
tomorrow, will continue to see, 
around his campfire, the phantom 
herd, dimly stalking across the 
moonlit spaces. And if the leader 
be whitened by age, even as the old 
prospector, that is not strange. Time 
and the desert do many strange 
things. The story is told of one 
hunter who saw "A red camel in 
the wilds of the desert with a saddle 
on its back to which was lashed a 
human skeleton." 

Strange things indeed tread the 
vast solitudes, and whether they be 
fact or fancy, such is the heritage 
of the desert, which holds many in- 
credible truths — and mirages. 


{Continued from page 397) 

laws against heretics, by which he 
gradually deprived them of all right 
to the exercise of their religion, ex- 
cluded them from all civil offices, and 
threatened them with fines, confis- 
cation, banishment, and in some 
cases . . . with death." 30 

At the instigation of the A than - 
asian bishop, Ithasius, a Span- 
ish bishop and six members of his 
sect including one woman, were tor- 
tured and beheaded with the sword 
at Treves in 385. This "is the only 
instance of the bloody punishment 
of heretics in this period, as it is the 
first in the history of Christianity. 
But the propriety of violent measures 
against heresy was henceforth vin- 
dicated even by the best of the 
fathers of the church." 21 The emi- 
nent present-day Catholic historian, 

^Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. Hi, 
p. 143. 

a Schaff, History of the Christian Church, vol. ill. 
p. 343. 

Mourret, speaks of the government 
of Theodosius as "gloriously repara- 

,. »>22 


A number of Germanic tribes had 
accepted Christianity. The West 
Goths were in part converted by the 
Arian bishop Wulfila, who translated 
the Bible into the Gothic language. 
The East Goths adopted Arianism 
in the fourth century. The Lom- 
bards at the time of their invasion 
of northern Italy had already adopt- 
ed Arianism. The Rugi, the Bur- 
gundians and the Vandals, either 
all were or became Arian. How- 
ever, the adoption by the Franks of 
the Nicene creed was to be decisive 
for all of the Germanic tribes. Cloth- 
ilda, wife of Clovis, was of the 
Nicene faith; and at the battle of 
Tolbiac (496) Clovis promised to 
become a Christian (Athanasian or 
Nicene) if he were victorious. He 
was baptized the following Christ- 
mas. "The conversion of Clovis de- 

22 Mourret, Les Peres de I'Egtise, p. 189. 

cided the religious future of all of the 
tribes of the Germanic race. . . . 
The baptism of the Franks was an 
event of immense importance. The 
conversion of a powerful Germanic 
people to the ( Athanasian ) Catholic 
faith, which was also that of the 
Greco-Roman world, placed the seal 
of the definite victory of Christianity 
(of the Nicene creed) over Arian 


Thus the faith of the Roman em- 
perors, and especially the faith of 
Theodosius and Justinian, determin- 
ed the faith of the Christian world. 
". . . it was always to him (the em- 
peror ) that the council owed its for- 
mation, to him that it looks for its 
program, its general direction, and 
above all for the sanction of its de- 
crees. If, as Theodosius, the em- 
peror, is distrustful of formulas and 
is more willing to rely on persons, 
it is he (the emperor) with whom 
{Continued on page 438) 

^Funk-Hemiaer, Hhtoire cte VEglUe. p. 191. 




(Continued from page 437) 

one is to be in communion. And on 
what does he base his decision? On 
his personal appreciation of the situ- 
ation. Theodosius is Nicene, like 
all the occidentals; called to govern 
the orient, he indicates to it as types 
of orthodoxy the bishops of Rome 
and Alexandria ... a bishop, es- 
pecially an important bishop, who 
desires to live quietly in peace, must 
be careful not to contradict the of- 
ficial dogmas and, in general, the 
manifestations, even religious, of the 
governmental will." 34 

Unless additions or changes were 
made as divinely directed, it was the 
duty of the Church to preserve the 
organization, the constitution, and 
the doctrines, once given by the 
Savior direct or by Him through the 
Apostles. The "Universal church" 
(now and to remain Athanasian) 
was founded neither in the scriptures 
nor in the traditions of the Church 
as recorded in the first two centuries 
by Church writers. The officers of 
the Church were no longer the same, 
nor had they the same powers. The 

^Duchesne, Histoire ancienne de VEglise. vol. U, 
p. 662. 

government of the Church had be- 
come despotic, and the people no 
longer had any voice in any matter 
— not even as to whether they should 
belong to the Church or not. Lib- 
erty of conscience no longer existed 
— a real ethical or religious life was 
impossible. The Church of the 
Master had disappeared from the 
face of the earth; another that had 
taken its place did not rest on the 
rock of revelation, but on despotic 


By Luacine Clark Fox 

'T'he creek is a dimpling maiden, 
-*- Racing down a mountain path 
Between tall trees, 
There are bright-faced flowers smiling up 

at her. 
Her dress is ruffled up with foam, 
And caught in flounces 
Held by shiny pebbles. 
Her feet are white and cool and bare, 
And leave a gleaming, 
Crystal stream, 
And cascades in their wake. 

The Color of Courage 

(Concluded from page 402) 

cheek. No one but Susie seemed to 
notice Emily's bare feet and the 
faded dress she wore. 

The First Lady hurried on her 
busy way. The crowd shuffled out 
at a respectful distance behind her. 
Only the children lingered on. 

"Say, Emily, where's that new 
dress you said you'd be a-wearin'?" 
demanded one of the older girls. 

Emily blushed crimson. Little 
Susie could hold her peace no 

"See those red stripes?" she 
blurted out, pointing a stubby fore- 
finger accusingly at the new flag. 

"Well, that's Emily's new dress! 
She cut up the brand-new length of 
calico herself!" 

But here the overwrought Susie 
simply could not go on. With un- 
restrained sobs she gave way to her 
grief at last. 

Emily fidgeted uneasily. Miss 
Kinney put her arm around the 
child. The others looked at their 
teacher in amazement. Why did she 
blink her eyes so fast and say over 
and over to herself: 

"Red is for courage. Yes, red is 
for courage!" 




...for happier trips 

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save you grief on the road. 

Tires Checked. It pays to be safe. Re- 
place risky tires ■with guaranteed Atlas 

Battery Serviced. It needs looking at of- 
tener in warm weather. 

Crankcase Checked. A drain and refill — 
or oil brought up to the proper level — is 
good engine insurance. 

Specialized Lubrication. Not just a grease 
job, but the right lubricant in the right 
places — for your comfort and safety. 

Pep 88 Gasoline. The climate-controlled 
gasoline that gives more power, smooth- 
ness, economy. 

It takes only a few minutes for a trained 
Pep 88 — Vico service man to check over 
your car . . . and those few minutes will 
be well spent. They may save you hours 
later on. 

Unless major repairs are required, you can 
get everything your car needs right at 
your neighborhood Pep 88 — Vico station. 
Drive in. Get set for a carefree trip. 

Before you start 
— and along 
the way — 










(Concluded from page 395) 

plains, but was near it, as on one 
occasion Moroni sought to induce 
the Lamanites to "meet them upon 
the plains between the two cities." 
Alma 52:20. 

Mulek was one of a number of 
cities which were on "the east 
borders by the seashore." Alma 
51 :26. It was from here that Tean- 
cum fled northward on one occasion 
to reach the city of Bountiful. 
Alma 52:23-27. 

Thus we establish the land Boun- 
tiful to the north of Zarahemla and 
the City Bountiful in the eastern end 
of the Land Bountiful. 

The City of Moroni is also im- 
portant to us as it was built "by the 

east sea : and it was on the south by 
the line of the possessions of the 
Lamanites." Alma 50:13. This 
would place it on the east end of the 
T. This location is important as 
Moroni was one of the cities which 
sank beneath the sea at the time of 
the crucifixion. Ill Nephi 8:9. 

It would be impossible to place 
more of the lands in an article of 
this length, but with the use of the 
accompanying chart and the text of 
the Book of Mormon many more 
may be located with surprising ac- 
curacy. Perhaps if all the require- 
ments of the text are considered, the 
Book of Mormon student may locate 
the Land of Zarahemla on the pres- 
ent-day map. 


[Continued from page 401) 

pose of the journey was withheld. 
President Snow answered the call 
to go, and then wondered and wor- 
ried until further light was given. 

He finally went to bed and rested 
fairly well during the night, appear- 
ing to feel very much better the 
following morning. It was Wednes- 
day, May 17, the day on which the 
special conference opened in the 
tabernacle in St. George. It was 
during one of these meetings that 
President Snow received the re- 
newed revelation on tithing. I was 
sitting at a table on the stand, re- 
porting the proceedings, when all at 
once father paused in his discourse. 
Complete stillness filled the room. 
I shall never forget the thrill as long 
as I live. When he commenced to 
speak again his voice strengthened 
and the inspiration of God seemed 
to come over him, as well as over the 
entire assembly. His eyes seemed 
to brighten and his countenance to 
shine. He was filled with unusual 
power. Then he revealed to the 
Latter-day Saints the vision that was 
before him. 

God manifested to him there and 
then not only the purpose of the call 
to visit the Saints in the South, but 
also Lorenzo Snow's special mission, 
the great work for which God had 
prepared and preserved him, and he 
unveiled the vision to the people. 
He told them that he could see, as he 
had never realized before, how the 
law of tithing had been neglected by 
the people, also that the Saints, 
themselves, were heavily in debt, as 
well as the Church, and now through 
strict obedience to this law — the 

paying of a full and honest tithing 

— not only would the Church be 

relieved of its great indebtedness, 

but through the blessings of the 

Lord this would also be the means 

of freeing the Latter-day Saints from 

their individual obligations, and 

they would become a prosperous 


Directly on tithing, President 

Snow said: 

The word of the Lord is: The time has 
now come for every Latter-day Saint, who 
calculates to be prepared for the future and 
to hold his feet strong upon a proper foun- 
dation, to do the will of the Lord and to 
pay his tithing in full. That is the word 
of the Lord to you, and it will be the word 
of the Lord to every settlement throughout 
the land of Zion. 

President Snow then referred to 
the terrible drought which had con- 
tinued so severely for three years in 
the South. The Virgin River and 
all its tributaries were virtually dry. 
One old resident stated: 

This has been the driest winter in thirty- 
five years; and the winter before, the driest 
in thirty-four years. The Pine Valley 
Mountains, usually covered with snow, are 
comparatively barren. Conditions are very 
discouraging to the families of this locality. 
The lucern and grain are drying up now 
and the recent frost played havoc with the 
grapes. Prospects are very discouraging 
mdeed.Salt Lake Herald, May 21, 1899. 

Four days later this statement was 


This is the coldest May, and the driest 
year the Dixie people have known. — Salt 
Lake Herald, May 25, 1899. 

President Snow said, after his re- 

All through "Dixie" we found everything 
(Concluded on page 440) 

...for it has no 
moving parts in its 
freezing system 




Save with 

but never hear 

• Continued low running cost 

• Lasting efficiency 

• More years of satisfaction 

• Savings that pay for it 

Here's a word to the thrifty: With 
a Gas refrigerator y° u ' re h*e© from 
costly upkeep expense because this 
silent, different refrigerator has no 
moving parts in its freezing system. 
No noise, no wear. See the new 
models. Easy terms. 



Serving 21 Utah Communities 




dying out. The stock were dying by hun- 
dreds; we could see them as we traveled- 
along, many of them being nothing but 
skin and bones, and many lying down 
never, I suppose, to get up again. 

Tn speaking of these serious drought 
conditions President Snow told 
the people that if they would observe 
the law of tithing from then on, and 
pay a full and honest tithing, that 
they might go ahead, plough their 
land and plant the seed; and he 
promised them, in the name of the 
Lord, that the clouds would gather, 
the rains from heaven descend, their 
lands would be drenched, and the 
rivers and ditches filled, and they 
would reap a bounteous harvest that 
very season. 

Many of the people had become 
so discouraged that they were not 
willing to risk the seeds of another 
planting, and many had not even 
ploughed their fields. Cattle every- 
where were dying, and the country 
was parched. It was now getting 
very late in the planting season in 
that southern country, and here the 
Prophet of the Lord made this won- 
derful prediction. Everyone present 
in that vast congregation knew that 
he was speaking under the inspira- 
tion of the Holy Spirit. 

That evening, father, mother, and 
I were again in the room together 
and father walked up and down the 
floor as he had done the previous 
night, but there was a sweet expres- 
sion of happiness and joy on his 
face. He talked aloud again, as he 
did the night before, and this is what 
he said: 

Now I know why I came to St. George. 
The Lord sent me here, and he has a great 
work for me to perform. There is no mis- 
take about it. I can see the great future 
for the Church and I can hardly wait to 
get back to Salt Lake City to commence 
the great work. 

When the returning party reached 
Nephi, where we were to take train 
for home, President Snow called the 
members all together in a meeting 
which will never be forgotten by 
those who were present. He com- 
missioned every one present to be 
his special witness to the fact that 
the Lord had given this revelation to 
him. He put all the party under 
covenant and promise not only to 
obey the law of tithing themselves 
but also that each would bear wit- 
ness to this special manifestation and 
would spread the tithing message at 
every opportunity. He made won- 
derful promises to those who would 

[Continued from page 439) 

be faithful to these admonitions. He 
was filled with great power and in- 
spiration and spoke with such feel- 
ing that Elder Francis M. Lyman 
says in his journal: "I was almost 
overcome, could hardly control my 
feelings. . . ." 

President Snow, with his party, 
returned to Salt Lake City, Satur- 
day, May 27, 1899. During his ab- 
sence of eleven days, he visited six- 
teen settlements, held twenty-four 
meetings, delivered twenty-six ad- 

President Snow saw his work 
very clearly and took hold of it with 
great energy after his return home. 
The word of the Lord to the Saints 
in the South became God's message 
to the entire people, and spread rap- 
idly throughout all the stakes of 
Zion and into the mission fields. The 
importance of the journey to "Dixie" 
grew as the hearts of the Latter-day 
Saints were moved upon by the 
spirit of the message. 

President Snow was instructed by 
the Lord to call the memorable 
solemn assembly in the Salt Lake 
Temple. The call for this assembly 
did not originate in his own mind, 
but was a command from the Lord 
who revealed it in vision. The 
solemn assembly was held July 2, 
1899, and was in session from 10 
o'clock in the morning until after 7 
o'clock in the evening. Such a gath- 
ering of Priesthood had never be- 
fore been held in the Church. All 
twenty-six of the General Author- 
ities of the Church were there. All 
the forty stakes of Zion and 478 
wards were represented. The spirit 
of the meeting was that of testimony 
and the promotion of faith, not one 
of temporal and business affairs. 
The renewed tithing revelation was 
the theme of all the eighteen ad- 
dresses. Humble, honest obedience 
to the tithing law became rather a 
spiritual gift and privilege than a 
material duty. The solemnity of the 
occasion was impressed upon the 
assemblage when President Snow 
led in the sacred Hosannah shout 
and pronounced glorious blessings 
and promises upon the people. 

Oresident Snow gathered and 
compiled data regarding the 
tithes being paid by the people, but 
kept especially in mind the Saints in 
the South. He called for a daily re- 
port showing the exact amount of 
tithing received from those settle- 
ments. I well remember handing 

him one of these reports. After 
looking over it carefully he said: 
"Wonderful, wonderful, the good 
people in 'Dixie' are not only paying 
one-tenth of their income, but they 
must be giving all they have to the 
Lord's work!" 

But the rains did not come, and 
the drought was not broken. Pres- 
ident Snow had the daily weather 
report placed on his desk which he 
carefully looked over, but there were 
no indications of any storms moving 
in the direction of southern Utah. 
Week after week passed and the 
only word was that southern Utah 
was burning up under the hot sun 
and there seemed to be no prospects 
of any change. 

One morning, as I was going up 
the stairway leading to father's bed- 
room, I was surprised to hear him 
talking to someone. I did not know 
that anyone had preceded me to his 
room that morning, but not wishing 
to disturb him, I walked quietly up 
the heavily carpeted stairway lead- 
ing to his room. The door was open, 
and as I reached it, there I saw this 
aged, gray-haired prophet, down on 
his knees before his bedside, not in 
the manner of praying, but seeming 
to talk to the Lord as if he might 
have been right in His very presence. 
He was pouring out his heart in 
pleading for the Saints in the South. 
I stood at the open door for a few 
moments and heard him say: 

Oh, Lord, why didst thou make those 
promises to the good people in St. George, 
if they are not to be fulfilled? Thou didst 
promise them, if they would accept thy 
command to obey the law of tithing, thou 
wouldst send the rains from heaven and 
bless them with a bounteous harvest. 
These good people accepted thy word and 
are not only paying a tenth of their in- 
come, but they are offering all they have 
to thee. Do keep thy promise and vindi- 
cate the words of thy servant through 
whom thou didst speak. 

I could not bear to hear any more. 
I turned from the door with my heart 
bleeding and went down the stairs. 

When father came into his office 
that morning, I noticed that he seem- 
ed discouraged, and seemed to take 
little interest in his work. Still, no 
report of any rains in St. George. 
Several days passed. One day there 
was a knock at the door. Brother 
Gibbs, the secretary, being out, I 
answered the call. It was a mes- 
senger boy with a telegram. I signed 
for it, opened the telegram, and as 
I was approaching father's desk, I 
could see on the face of that tele- 
gram: "Rain in St. George." I 



was so happy I could not wait, but 
called out: "Father, they have had 
rain in St. George." 

"Read it, my boy, read it," he 
said, and I read the telegram telling 
of a great rain that had come to the 
people there, filling the river and its 
tributaries and the canals and 
drenching the entire country. The 
newspaper account read: 

Special per Deseret Telegraph. — St. 
George, Aug. 2. The long and severe 
drought that Dixie has been suffering from 
for the last seventeen months was broken 
this morning and at noon today 1 .89 inches 
of rain fell, every drop of which went into 
the parched earth. 

The amount of good that will result will 
be great. More rain fell than Dixie has 
had in twenty months. Her grain crops are 
30 per cent below the average, and the 
alfalfa is almost as low, while fruit is suf- 
fering considerably. Little or no water has 
been flowing from Pine Valley for three 
months past, and several towns have 
barely had enough water for culinary pur- 
poses. — Deseret News, Aug. 2, 1899. 

The Lord had given the Saints 
sufficient time to prepare the soil and 
plant the seed. Then, too, the fulfil- 
ment of the prophecy depended upon 
the observance of the tithing law. 
The people were given a little more 
than two months to prepare their 
lands and to prove their acceptance 
of the Lord's command to them. The 
prophecy was made in the latter part 
of May, and its fulfillment was com- 
menced with the beginning of the 
heavy rains on August 2. These 
rains continued. The crops matured 
and the promised harvest was reap- 
ed by the faithful Saints in the St. 
George Stake. 

Father took the telegram from my 
hand, read it very slowly, and after 
a few moments, got up from his 
desk, and left the office. A little 
while afterwards I followed him into 
the house and asked mother where 
he was. When she told me she had 
not seen him, I know he must have 
gone to his room. I walked quietly 
up the stairway and before reaching 
the top I heard him talking, as I had 
on the other occasion. I went to his 
room and there he was again, down 
on his knees pouring out his heart in 
gratitude and thanksgiving to the 
Lord. He said: 

Father, what can I do to show my ap- 
preciation for the blessing which thou hast 
given to the good people in St. George? 
Thou hast fulfilled thy promise to them 
and vindicated the words spoken through 
thy servant. Do show me some special 
thing that I can do to prove my love for 

This faithful servant of the Lord, 
who had devoted all his long life in 
beautiful and unwavering service to 

God, felt that he had not done 
enough and wanted to do more. 
There he was in the presence of His 
Heavenly Father, overcome with joy 
and happiness. The last words I 
heard, as I was returning down the 
stairs, were: "Thou canst not ask 
anything of me that I am not willing 
to do, even though it be the offering 
of my life, to prove my love for 

\17hen father returned to his office, 
his face was filled with hap- 
piness and I am very sure that his 
heart was lightened and his difficult 
task made much easier. 

The Lord had spoken. His word 
was carried on the wings of inspira- 
tion to the farthest ends of the 
Church. The spirit of tithepaying 
wrought upon the hearts of the peo- 
ple. The Latter-day Saints yielded 
honest obedience in the payments of 
their tithes, and the relief of the 
Church from its bondage of debt be- 
came assured. 

President Snow expressed the de- 
sire: "Before I die, I hope to see 
the Church cleared of debt, and in 
a commanding position financially." 
He knew the Lord's plan would suc- 
ceed; and when it was well under 
way, he asked Elder Rudger Claw- 
son when the Church would be out 
of debt. Brother Clawson, who had 
been appointed to compile the finan- 
cial statistics, replied: "President 
Snow, if you live until the fall of 
1 905, you will see the Church out of 
debt, or, at least, able to take up all 
its obligations, if it wishes to do so." 

President Snow then said: "That 
will be fine, Brother Clawson. If 
your prediction does come true and 
I live to see the Church out of debt, 
we will have a great jubilee in the 
Salt Lake Temple. I will call the 
people together and burn the last 
bonds before their eyes. There will 
be the greatest rejoicing among the 
Latter-day Saints that they have 
ever known." 

April 5, 1907, President Joseph F. 
Smith stated at conference: 

The tithes of the people during the year 
1906 have surpassed the tithes of any other 
year. ... I want to say another thing to 
you, and I do so by way of congratulation, 
and that is, that we have, by the blessings 
of the Lord and the faithfulness of the 
Saints in paying their tithing, been able to 
pay off our bonded indebtedness. Today 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints owes not a dollar that it cannot pay 
at once. At last we are in a position that 
we can pay as we go. We do not have 
to borrow any more, and will not have 
to if the Latter-day Saints continue to live 
their religion and observe this law of tith- 
(Concluded on page 442) 

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(Concluded from page 441) 
ing. It is the law of revenue to the 

President Snow did not live to see 
it, as he died October 10, 1901, but 
the Lord's plan, inaugurated through 
him, placed the Church in the com- 
manding financial position which 
President Snow foresaw. 

President Snow said: 

The law of tithing is one of the most 
important ever revealed to man. The pen- 
alty following disobedience to the law of 
tithing is that the disobedient shall not live 
among the people of God. But through 
this law the blessings of prosperity and 
success will be given unto the Saints. 

{Continued from page 399) 

"That fellow," the driver ex- 
plained, "came in here the same year 
as Ben Wood and Nat Crooks. 
Father knows all of them. They 
had equal chances." 

"Who is Nat Crooks?" 

"He lives farther up the river. 
He has a good place but he has had 
to count pennies all his days. He 
has a large family but he has man- 
aged to educate them. Of his four 
boys three are staying with the land. 
That shows opportunity has to be 
grasped as well as found." 

"Which proves," Vera said with 
iinality, "that farming is cuckoo." 
She leaned forward and placed a 
kiss on her husband's lips. 

The Advertisers, 

and Where You Will Find 

Their Messages 

Beneficial Life Ins. Co...-Back Cover 

Brigham Young University 441 

Daynes Music Co -447 

Deseret News Press 446 

Eastman Kodak Company 433 

Globe Mills 419 

Home Fire Insurance Co 447 

Hotel Lankershim 387 

Ken-Ray Auto Camp 389 

KSL Radio Station 

Inside Back Cover 

L. D. S. Business College 445 

Landes Tractor & Equipment Co..388 

Levi Strauss 387 

Midwest Dairy 443 

Mountain Fuel Supply Co 439 

New Grand Hotel 443 

Ogden School of Beauty Culture.,443 

Polk, R. L. & Co ..443 

Quish School of Beauty Culture-444 

Schoss Electric Co 443 

Shell Oil Co. Inside Front Cover 

Utah Engraving Co 435 

Utah Power & Light Co ..433 

Utah Oil Co 438 

During the M. I. A. Conference, 
in 1899, at one of the officers' meet- 
ings, President Snow spoke on tith- 
ing. At the conclusion of his ad- 
dress the following resolution was 
presented by Elder B. H. Roberts: 

Resolved: That we accept the doctrine 
of tithing, as now presented by President 
Snow, as the present word and will of the 
Lord unto us, and we do accept it with all 
our hearts; we will ourselves observe it, 
and we will do all in our power to get the 
Latter-day Saints to do likewise. 

The resolution was unanimously 
adopted by all present rising to their 
feet and shouting, "Aye." 

Elder Francis M. Lyman then 
arose and said: 

President Snow: I believe this body of 
men are about as clear upon this law, and 
have about as faithfully met their obliga- 
tions in regard to tithing, as any body of 
men in the Church. It is a splendid thing, 
brethren, for us to be always in shape to 
accept the will of the Lord when it comes. 

Visibly affected, President Snow 
then arose and said : 

Brethren, the God of our fathers, Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, bless you. Every 
man who is here, who has made this prom- 
ise, will be saved in the Celestial Kingdom. 
God bless you. Amen. 

■ ♦ « 


"No fair bothering the driver." 

The shadows were lengthening 
and the air was keenly cool with the 
fragrance of evening when Lynn 
turned his car back toward the 
ranch. Again he drove slowly and 
as they neared the Wood fences he 
sighed again. 

"What a place! What a place! 
Why wasn't I born fifty years ago?" 

/\t the ranch he stopped 
the car in front without leaving the 
county road. They could see Reid 
dawdling on the front porch. Miss 
Meade was there, too, Lynn, Mark, 
and Nancy got out and went toward 
the house, Reid stepped off the 
porch to meet them. He was ac- 
quainted with the men. Lynn spoke 
to him about the work. 

"I could use another man. Stick 
around a few minutes." He turned 
to Nancy. There was a glint about 
his eyes that was an instant chal- 
lenge. "Too bad you were gone so 
long," he said to her. "A friend of 
yours called." 

"Which friend?" Nancy asked 
sharply, suspicion leaping to her 

"Your friend. The boy friend. 
He left just a few minutes before 
you came." 

"You mean Pete was here?" 

"I think that is his name. You 

see Jim told me you had gone home 

with your friends." 

Nancy's face went suddenly scar- 
let, not that she had been so eager 
to see Pete — -but the nerve of it. 

She turned abruptly and went back 
to the car. Vera grabbed her joy- 

"He's jealous, Nanc. Snatch 

your chance. Snatch your chance." 

"He's insolent and rude." 

" — and any girl's dream of bliss." 

"You make me weary, Vic." 

"That is okay by me as long as 
you make good your golden oppor- 

When the men came back Lynn 
seemed much the happier of the two. 

"All set. Start work tomorrow." 

Phyllis beamed her happiness. 
"Now we can finish our little house." 

"I'll have to go back with you to 
get my clothes." 

"I'll send them over with the mail 

And so the threes drove away 
leaving behind a disconsolate man 
and an angry girl. They sat on the 
lawn talking jerkily until it was 
frankly dark; then Mark went to the 
bunkhouse and Nancy to her room. 

She was still angry when she went 
into Mr. Wood's room the next 
morning. She needed some informa- 
tion and to show her defiance went 
to the father instead of the son for 
it. As she was leaving the room he 
stopped her. 

"How is the new boss coming?" 

"Very well, I think. Things move 
with dispatch." 

He grinned with frank enjoyment. 
"Riled you last night, didn't he?" 

"You heard?" 

"Everything. I might'a told your 
friend the truth but I don't believe 
in interfering. The window was 
open and no one bothered to keep 
their voices down." 

"Then you heard Vera — earlier?" 

"Couldn't help it." 

"Vera talks too much." 

"She's got sense, though." He 
chuckled quietly. "This youngen 
will feel better now. You like him 
a little bit, don't you?" 




"Yes. Yes, of course, but — " 

Was she seeing things or did the 
faded old eyes leap with sudden 
light? "He wouldn't be bad to team 
up with, would he?" 

"He's very — eligible," she an- 
swered stiffly. 

He looked at her sharply. Then 
suddenly demanded. "Why don't 
you go home for a visit. Guess we 
don't need to work our help all the 
time. I hear your father is poorly." 

"I should love it." 

"Hop to it. Take the small car 
and go by yourself." 


"Right now. When they start 
stacking they might need you." 

"You blessed sinner." Nancy 
gave him a swift impulsive kiss and 
ran to change. 



ancy turned the car 
recklessly and drove out 
across the sagebrush flat. It was 
too dry, this flat, for farming and 
it lay much as nature had formed it; 
the only traces of man were the nu- 
merous trails that cut through it — 
like this one that had brought her to 
her work and was now taking her 
back. Another wound away and 
away across the desert until it 
merged into others and civilization. 
One went up Antelope Creek where 
there were only rocks and scrub 
trees. Some merely lead on and on 
getting nowhere in particular. Life 
depended a great deal on the road 
one took. Good thing she was cer- 
tain of hers. 

She had forgotten how barren life 
was of comforts at home. She went 
to sleep that night with a deep de- 
pression clinging to her spirits and 
it would not be shaken. The house 
was a little hotter, poverty a little 
sharper, hopes a little less definite 
than she had remembered. A great 
deal of the time she sat by her father. 

"Aren't you getting better?" she 
asked hopefully. 

"No," he answered simply. "I am 
not getting better." 

He took an avid interest in her 
conversation but when she tried to 
sit by him and tell him about her 
experiences words failed her. Hap- 
penings seemed so trivial compared 
with the far-seeing, baffling look in 
his eyes. With him her thoughts 
stood still. Words stumbled over 
her awkward tongue. 

Then all too quickly the visit was 
over and she was coming back 
across the flat. The sky was alight 
with stars. The moon, a silver 

scimitar, hung low above the eastern 
hills. And now as she noticed roads 
between the brush she knew some- 
where another road was beckoning, 
beckoning insistently! The thought 
of it was new and terrifying. Would 
her father put his feet to it? 

She put the car away and as she 
came up the steps Reid rose out of 
the dark to open the screen for her. 

"You finally returned?" he bark- 

At the sharp words Nancy step- 
ped upon the porch. The clear night 
light struck Reid Wood's face. It 
was pulled into lines of ill humor. 

"So you are back," he said again. 

"Did I stay too long?" 

"Yes," curtly. "There was no 
reason for your going." 

"But your father — " 

"I'm running this spread just now. 
This happens to be a busy time." 

"Oh." This had not been a busy 
time. Tomorrow or next day when 
the stacking had been started — but 
not now. In spite of leaving home 
she had been so eager to get back. 
It was good to know the feeling of 
security this work had brought her. 
It was satisfying to be earning. 
Here she might forget for a while 
the fear the insistent new road had 
brought. Instead she had come 
back to a sulky employer. Flaming 
anger swept over her and she turned 
sharply to go inside. 

The young man reached a hand to 
stay her; and then suddenly she was 
in his arms and his face was very 
close to hers. 

"Don't you dare," he whispered 
huskily, "ever leave me again." 

"But I shall." Her voice was cold 
with fury. She slipped from his 
arms and paused in the darkness of 
the doorway. "I think I shall leave 
whenever I feel like it." 

He stepped toward her but she 
fled to her own room. Tremblingly 
she laid aside her things and made 
ready for bed. Home problems 
were forgotten now. She could feel 
acutely the possessiveness of his 
arms. With what insouciance he 
could swing from one girl to an- 
other. But she found her anger ebb- 
ing. Vera had been right. She lay 
staring into the patch of light that 
came through her unblinded win- 
dow. A lovely, lovely road was 
opening, inviting and intriguing — a 
road that would lead to the Land of 
Her Heart's Desire. She was glad 
she had bought a new dress in Blaine 

( To be Continued) 



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(Continued from page 393) 


natural wants of His children on 
earth shall be supplied, in return for 
their willingness to work. Beyond 
that, every man must move on as his 
natural gifts may permit. 

N THE solution of this fundamental 
and difficult problem, you will be 
driven to teach your "own genera- 
tion," weakened by its own conceit, 
the few and simple principles by 
which economic safety is won and 
established. Every man by labor 
must contribute to his own and the 
world's wealth, by the sweat of his 
brow he must earn life's happiness; 
he must guard carefully against 
the waste of his hard-won gains, 
that is, he must be thrifty; he 
must live upon his own wealth, 
not upon that of others, that 
is, he must live within his own 
means, thus relegating debt to the 
rubbish heap; and the strong must 
help the weak, that is, those who 
have must give to those who have 
not. It will not be an easy task to 
make men accept these teachings, in 
a world diseased from false philos- 
ophies, but you must not falter in 
your attempts, if you would serve 
your "own generation," 

Do not forget, however, that at 
the bottom of our economic chaos, 
as a major factor, lies the horrible 
disease of the soul known as, covet- 
ousness, which may affect rich or 
poor. That must be fought and con- 
quered, before our economic system 
can be fully righted. Covetousness 
means love of material things for 
themselves. The intense desire for 
gold, property, fame, or honor dulls 
every human sense, becomes as it 
were an anaesthetic to the spiritual 
nature; and man becomes cruel, 
harsh, miserly, careless of his fellow 
men. Right-minded men, to whom 
wealth has come, have recognized 
this danger, and by gifts and foun- 


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dations have tried to protect them- 
selves against the insidious, soul- 
destroying evil of covetousness. 
The covetous man is useless in the 
service of his generation. Gold, 
lands, property, position must be 
sought for good purposes only, and 
must be valued as means to an end, 
not as ends in themselves, and thus 
they must be used. The hoarder or 
miser is a menace to his generation. 

It must also be said that in se- 
curing a better economic order the 
hard-won liberties of men must be 
preserved. Man has fought his way 
upward, from superstition, ignor- 
ance, degrading poverty, torture, 
and slavery. Centuries have been 
required and lives sacrificed, not to 
speak of the squalor and ills of mil- 
lions, to win the freedom that men 
now possess — freedom to think, to 
speak, to act, under the law — to en- 
joy the earth and its bounties. In 
recent years, under the specious pre- 
tense that better provision may be 
made for man's material wants, and 
that greater equality shall prevail, 
dishonest or misguided men are at- 
tempting to lead mankind back into 
the horrors of the dark past, where 
dictators determine the course of 
individual lives. The lesson of his- 
tory is clear. Human happiness is 
the product of individual freedom, 
under the law of the group. Any 
departure from that principle spells 
bondage and misery for man. 

If that truth has not been made, 
in a spiritual sense, flesh of your 
flesh and bone of your bone, your 
training has been a dismal failure. 
You will be obliged, if you are to 
serve your "own generation" to fight 
tyranny, the foe of liberty, what- 
ever its masquerading name may be, 
whether at home or abroad. It will 
be a worth-while battle, for human 
happiness will be at stake. It may 
be the sorest of your life's battles. 

HThe battle against tyranny may 
have to begin at home. The at- 
tempt to deprive men of their lib- 
erties, which means to reduce them 
to slavery, roots in selfishness, shall 
I say, again, covetousness. In our 
own republic, where democracy 
should rule, the political boss, big 
or little, is usually impelled by self- 
ish motives. He cares little for the 
liberty of the group he seeks to con- 
trol. He tyrannizes as far as he 
thinks it safe. The vast majority of 
politicians are more concerned with 
political plums than with govern- 
mental principles. Unfortunately, 

love of man for man seldom directs 
men in public office. To our shame 
many men in public office, high and 
low, in the midst of personal dis- 
honesty and corruption, pretend to 
serve their fellow men. They are all 
would-be dictators of different de- 
grees. There is but one way to cor- 
rect such evil — to clean house, to 
turn the rogues out of public office, 
and for you and other men of hon- 
est, righteous outlook to take their 
places. The fight against covetous- 
ness and for human liberty will be 
part of your .campaign for man's 
economic sufficiency. It will not be 
a pleasant job, perhaps, but there 
must be no hesitancy on the part of 
educated men in accepting the duty. 
In bringing about a better economic 
world you will indeed be of service 
to your "own generation." 

The third great problem of life 
that I desire to mention and the last, 
involves your largest duty if you 
wish to serve your "own genera- 

Our times are unsurpassed in 
knowledge. Since Galileo dropped 
stones from the leaning tower of 
Pisa, man's conquest of nature's 
secrets has gone forward at an ac- 
celerated pace. The sciences have 
revealed undreamed-of mysteries 
of nature. Man, who is never con- 
tent with merely knowing, has 
brought the forces of nature under 
his control, and reduced them to 
servitude in the house of humanity. 
A machine does the work of a hun- 
dred hands; we move with incred- 
ible swiftness over land and sea; the 
spoken word is heard around the 
world; comforts and luxuries sur- 
round us; the kings of the past were 
beggars compared with the average 
man of today. It is a marvelous age 
of unequalled progress. 

Yet we must confess, it is not all- 
around progress. Our moral prog- 
ress has lagged behind fearfully. 
It seems actually to have been re- 
tarded by us in our eager search for 
new material victories. Of course, 
we have progressed morally, but not 
enough; for, as man wins new con- 
quests over nature, and new powers 
are placed in his hands, he requires 
sturdier moral strength to use his 
new gifts. 

Note some of our present condi- 
tions. Crime is rampant. Murders 
are commonplace. College gradu- 
ates are confined with those less in- 
formed in the penitentiaries of the 
land. Much scientific invention is 
being used to injure or destroy man. 
The methods of warfare have never 
been so dastardly and frightful. As 




far as the law permits, fraudulent 
articles are hawked over the coun- 
try. Stimulants, narcotics, habit-be- 
getting drugs, to whip nerves into 
action or to render them insensible, 
are publicized with the greatest al- 
lure and at staggering costs. For- 

telligence in the universe may not 
enter the portals of science. Many 
thoughtful, educated men have 
come to believe that in this view 
lurks the most persistent danger to 
our civilization. 

As a result of this placement of 

tunes are being built up, from sales religion, conduct or proper use of 

to the unwary or the weak, and the 
owners claim respectability. The 
volume of theft, lying, and corrup- 
tion in public and private places 
seems out of strange consonance 

man's faculties, which is a product 
of religion, is often left a foundling 
on the doorstep of man's discovered 
house of truth. If conduct is 
touched at all, it is a part of ethics, 

with our gains over the physical by which men live to some degree 
universe. In the midst of mental righteously, because, selfishly it is 
plenty there remains moral poverty, wise to do so, not because it con- 
Under the effulgence of our intel- forms to the higher will and wisdom. 
lectual light, nations are actually Society becomes a lifeless, souliess, 
planning to return to the chained though mayhap an efficient machine, 
conditions which we have long called when governed by ethics; when un- 
the dark ages. It is an incredible der the warm sun of religion it de- 
situation, velops, grows, and behaves as a 
Co evident has been the moral lag living organism blessing all. Men 
of mankind that it has been pro- are but automatons unless religion 
posed that civilized man declare an enters into their lives, 
intellectual moratorium until the The forgetfulness of religion is 
world's morality catches up with our sterilizing the world. In the cold 
present scientific knowledge. That, v iew of material science lie the seeds 
of course, should not be done. There f ev il s that threaten the destruction 
must be no cessation of progress in f human life, liberty, and happiness. 
any department of human activity. It should not be so, for the objective 
Rather, the way out is to give more f science is truth; the objective of 
attention to the moral advancement 

religion is truth. Both science and 
religion are drawn in their essential 
knowledge and conclusions from the 
same unseen universe. Three hun- 
dred years of scientific exploration 
has established one thing above all 
others: the unseen world is real, for 
out of it has come the major part of 
our scientific possessions. The one 
chief claim of religion is the reality 
of the unseen world. Religion and 
science are but parts of one whole. 
There is unity in all nature. Reli- 
gion in its broad aspect is the phil- 
osophy of all knowledge; it is the 
system that directs all knowledge 
towards human welfare; science in 
its common meaning is but a hand- 
maid of religion. 

Tf humanity continues to accept 
the gifts of science apart from re- 
ligion, the old saving truths will van- 
ish from the earth, and men will seek 
to win their way by ruthless, loveless 
methods. Chaos will be the end. 
A noble service will be rendered 
your "own generation" if you teach 
with all your might that all knowl- 
edge, all good comes from one 
source, the eternal God. By that 
token alone will conduct under 
God's law, save the generations of 
men from their own folly. 

(Concluded on page 447) 

and safety of mankind. 

Nothing can be more important 
for the protection of human welfare. 
It is the moral nature of man that 
directs the intellect in all human 
relations. Proper conduct is a pro- 
duct of morality. Take away moral 
direction and the conduct of man 
cannot be foretold — it may bless or 
curse; it may heal or kill; it recog- 
nizes no law save its own whim and 

What is the way out? How may 
the moral actions of the race be ac- 
celerated? That is a heart cry of 
the world. Here religion enters. 
Morality without God is ethics; 
morality with God is religion. 

Perhaps science, itself, in this age 
of science, is to blame. Man's pres- 
ent wealth of knowledge is so enor- 
mous that no one man can possess 
more than a small fraction of it. 
Consequently it has been divided 
into many disciplines, and the sub- 
division continues. Each branch has 
its own instruments and methods of 
approach. Men in one division, 
hemmed in by their man-made walls, 
often know little or nothing of other 
divisions. In the midst of this pro- 
fusion, religion has been set aside as 
totally different from all other 
branches of human experience. 
Moreover, whatever savors of in- 

Returned Missionaries Keep Alive the Spirit of Their Missions 


First Row: J. W. Fair, Logan; Gladys Crolley, Bethune, So. Carolina; Rella Anderson, Idaho 

Falls; Harriet Yates, Lake Point; Elsie Adams, Douglas, Georgia; Georgia Erickson, Vernal. 
Second Row: Berger Kleven, Salt Lake City; George Peterson, Salt Lake City; Donald Taylor, 

Ephraim; Frank Tingey, Salt Lake City; Harrison Sperry, Salt Lake City. 
Third Row: John Hodgson, Salt Lake City; Dean Walker, Pleasant Grove; Wendell Miller, 

Venice; Victor Degn, Logan; Arthur Lunt, Salt Lake City; Burke Jones, Salt Lake City, Warren 

Sutton, Salt Lake City. 

This club, sponsored by Eugene C. Hinckley, provided programs for many Sacrament 
Meetings in Salt Lake City and neighboring stakes. The organization fosters spiritual, scholas- 
tic, and social activities, thus helping returned missionaries through the difficult readjustment 


Your name and address on a card will bring full information. 


70 North Main Street Salt Lake City, Utah 



Solution to June Puzzle 

Scriptural Crossword Puzzle— Pauline Precepts (I Thess. 5:15) 













































































































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1 "Quench not . . . Spirit" 

4 ". . . your own selves" 

8 "But let us, . . . are of the day" 

11 Seven, a combining form 

12 Revived 

14 Epistle that Paul wrote 

15 Our country 

16 Style of painting 

17 "be patient toward . . . men" 
19 "I am made all . . . to all men" 
21 Sportsman's halloo 

23 "nor the ... by night" (pi.) 

24 Hawkeye State 

26 ". . . , so wouki we have it" 

27 Clothing 

29 "they shall turn away their . . ." 

31 "and . . . the traditions which ye 

have been taught" 

32 "Therefore, brethren, stand . . ." 
34 Burden 

36 Influenza 

calleth you" 
have no hope" 

37 Part of the foot 

39 Father of Joshua 

40 General Secretary 

42 King of Bashan 

43 Possessive pronoun 

44 "Faithful is he . . 
46 "even as others . . 
48 Small area 

50 Translation 

51 God in Hebrew names 
53 Told 

56 Land measure 

57 Paul counts as one 

58 "For this ... the will of God" 

59 "zealous of . . . works" 

60 "the day of the Lord . . . cometh 

as a thief in the night" 

Our Text from Thessalonians is 4, 
17, 19, 31, 32, 44, 46, 58, and 59 


1 Both Epistles to the . . . were 

written by 4 down 

2 False fruit of a rosebush (var.) 

3 "Now an omer is the tenth part 

of an . . ." 

4 "... , called to be an apostle of 

Jesus Christ" 

5 4 down was this when he "stood 

in the midst of Mars' hill" 

6 Old Dominion 

7 Marbles and watches bear this 


8 "the shadow of thy . . ." (sing.) 

9 Ruler of district in old Norway 
10 Song 

13 Glasses 

18 Christ, the divine word 

20 "... , every one that thirsteth, 

come ye to the waters" 
22 ". . . , not so, my Lord" 

23 "thou art beside thyself; much 

learning doth make thee ..." 
25 "ye that ride on white . . ." 
28 God in Hebrew names 

30 Athenian 

31 "Esau was a cunning . . ." 

32 "and the waters . . ." 

33 Anything 
35 Greek letter 

38 "lest that by any means, when I 
have preached to . . ." 

40 Festivals 

41 Let it stand 

45 Son of Lotan Gen. 36: 22 
47 Son of Enoch; raid (anag.) 
49 Animal 
52 Constellation 

54 For example 

55 ". . . it heartily, as to the Lord"' 




(Concluded from page 445) 

Faith in God, the first principle 
of religion, is the key to real, not 
seeming, progress in our restless 
chaotic age. It is faith that the na- 
tions need, our own beloved nation 
included. We have thought that 
knowledge, alone, had saving 
power, but we have learned to our 
sorrow that we cannot substitute 
the automobile for honesty, the air- 
plane for virtue, or the radio for love. 
We have thought that mastery over 
steam, gas, and electricity would 
render us immune from defeat in life. 
But life teaches that the issues of 
birth and death rise above man's in- 
ventions, and that the most learned 
may carry grief in his heart and go 
down conquered by life's eternal 

We have thought to set up a so- 
cial structure built on scientific facts 
and have found that human kind- 
ness, as of brother to brother, has 
determined the success of the ven- 
ture. We have tried to read life's 
riddles in the halls of science and 
invention, and have found our cry 
echoing in empty rooms. We have 
sought for joy in the conquests of 
man; but have found it in self-con- 
quest, upon our knees before the 
Lord. We have found that "there 
is a spirit in man," heaven-born, 
which must be fed if life's journey 
shall be sweet. It has been good to 
return from the icy corridors of the 
faith-forgotten mind to the soul- 
warmth of religion, of God. 

Faith is light; it means knowledge 
of God, the certainty of His exist- 
ence. Faith gives desire and 
strength to do the will of God. 
Faith directs man in all his actions, 
It enables man to convert hate into 
love. Faith blesses, makes men 
mighty, enlightens the mind, glori- 
fies life. The ultimate conquerors 
of earth will be men of faith. Be- 
fore faith every enemy retreats. 

The need of our land is faith; 
the need of every citizen is faith. 
There will be no solution to our 
problems except upon the terms of 
faith. Only those who seek part- 
nership with God, through faith, can 
conquer, be they presidents, kings, 
or dictators. 

The fear of God has ever been 
the beginning of wisdom. It means 
compliance with the divinely given 
codes of conduct, which have built 
character into man's structure. The 
ten commandments and the beati- 
tudes are yet the best foundation on 

which to build all successful life. 
Without recognition of them and 
obedience to them, there can be no 
service to one's "own generation" 
or any other generation. 

You are going out to serve your 
"own generation." Remember the 
end of the sentence, "by the will of 
God." You must find the Maker of 
the Heavens and the Earth; you 
must establish faith in your own 
souls and among men; you must 
teach men to look upward for guid- 
ance; upon your knees you must sur- 
render to the divine purpose — then 
in power you may go forth to serve 
your "own generation." 

I have asked you to resolve to 
serve your "own generation," and 
have spoken of three fields in which 
such service is greatly needed: 
Education, Economic Betterment, 
and Moral Improvement. If you ac- 
cept the advice, you will find life 
filled with high, exciting, joyous ad- 
venture. And you can render great 
service in your day, if you but sur- 
render yourselves completely to the 
changeless, timeless principles of 
righteousness, the only safe insur- 
ance of men or nations against dis- 
aster. Service can never rise above 
personal virtues. Your own integ- 
rity must be your first and constant 
concern, if you are to serve your 
"own generation." 

Do not fear. Go out to conquer. 
As you stand for God and His laws, 
true to the unchanging principles of 
righteousness, you will become ben- 
efactors of the race. They who so 
live are not weaklings, but strong, 
positive men. They have opinions, 
based on carefully won truth which 
they are ready to express and de- 
fend. They cannot stoop to untruth 
for personal advantage. They have 
character. To them, a correct phil- 
osophy of human life is worth more 
than political party. To them, what 
a man does means more than what 
he says. To them, traditions must 
be tested by the rule of truth. By 
them, the world has moved forward 
through the dark and the middle 
ages into this day of unequalled en- 
lightenment. By them, men have 
won their freedom of thought and 
speech, political equality, and a 
measure of economic sufficiency. By 
them, the problems of the future will 
be solved, and all men be fed, 
clothed, and sheltered upon our 
bounteous earth. They are the able 
men who serve their "own genera- 
tion by the will of God." 

C K=>< xr* ><=x >o< xrx x=x o< xcx >c=< ><zx y^x x=x x<y 









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AY and Can are two indispensable words — and each has a 
meaning that should be respected. May properly means 
the asking of permission: May I go? Can means the ability: 
Can we by searching find truth? 


Dear Editors: 

Have been teaching school in the Church school here at 
Kelsey, Texas, for the past two years and have found The 
Improvement Era a valuable help in securing information on 
various Church activities and religious topics. When one is 
a long way from Utah this magazine practically gives a 
summary of the important things that are happening in the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

Very sincerely yours, 
J. Reed Noyes. 


March 7, 1938. 
Dear Brethren: 

I just received my March number of The Improvement 
Era. I'm always glad to have it. I'm happy to say that 
I was asked to be [last year] Director and help to place the Era 
in every home. 

I'm so glad our missionaries get the Era and know it will 
make many friends. 

Mrs. Lenzy Hoopes, 

Washington, Utah. 


May 19, 1938. 
Dear Brethren: 

WE,„the Genealogical Committee of the Sacramento Stake, 
wish to express our sincere appreciation for including in 
your magazine a Genealogical section. We feel the great 
responsibility of this most important work in the Church and 
welcome any suggestions and help you can offer through this 
department. , j 

We sincerely thank you for your interest. 

Sacramento Stake Genealogical Committee 

Luther Y. Smith, Chairman. 
Llewellyn Roberts, 1st Counselor. 
Wm. J. Barnes, 2nd Counselor. 
Andrew L. Harmic, Temple chairman. 
Iris H. Smith, Secretary. 

Dear Brother: April 27, 1938. 

WE are indeed grateful for the excellent work of our Era 
Directors. We have continually aimed high, but ever 
was the thought instilled in our minds that we wanted The 
Improvement Era in the homes of Latter-day Saints (and 
others) where that "Voice of the Church" might sound, again 
and again. To a Church founded upon continual revelation, 
no Latter-day Saint can expect to keep up with the Church 
unless he has that "Voice" coming to him regularly and then 
guides his thoughts and actions accordingly. One dear Sister, 
having joined the Church against family, and a whole city 
pitted against her, when we were speaking of President 
Grant, said, "I have The Improvement Era, and I feel that 
I know President Grant and the other Presidents as if I had 
met them personally — and known them all my life. I couldn't 
do without the Era." 

Grateful for such labors, and for your gracious acknowl- 
edgments, I remain, 

Sincerely your brother, 

George Ellsworth, 
Mission Supervisor of M. I. A., 

North Central States. 

forth a bottle of water and a bottle of whiskey and set them 
on the pulpit together with two glasses and an old tin can. 
Jake poured into the one glass some water and into the other 
glass some whiskey. Then, from the tin can he produced 
two large worms, placing one in each glass. The worm in 
the water kept wiggling continually while the worm in the 
whiskey died after a few convulsive struggles. 

"Now," asked Jake, "can anyone tell us the moral of this 
little illustration?" 

A wide-eyed little Deacon on the first row readily volun- 
teered: "If you have worms — drink whiskey!" 

Submitted by Ivan Jensen, Verdun, Quebec, Canada. 


The Sunday School class was learning the Articles of 
Faith, but the teacher was not particular to explain the 
meaning or make sure that the pupils understood what they 
were saying. When it came time for little Mary to repeat 
Article 2, she arose and said: "We believe that man will be 
punished for his nonsense and not for Adam's transgression." 
Submitted by Leah B. Lyman, Blanding, Utah. 



After Sunday School one morning, little Willie was heard 
to sing: "In our lovely Deseret where the Saints of God 
have met, There's a mile or two of children all around." 
Submitted by Leah B. Lyman, Blanding, Utah. 


To A crude log hut in what is now Layton, Utah, came a 
begging Indian, in the early fifties. When he failed to 
get all he asked for, he grunted and exclaimed: "Me shoot!" 
The husbandman (Lewis Whitesides) retorted with a with- 
ering look and piercing voice, the following challenge: "Who 
the h — are you going to shoot?" 

The wily Indian dropped his haughtiness and answered 
shyly: "Me shoot chicken." 

Submitted by E. M. Whitesides, Layton, Utah. 




ld Jake Collins stood behind the pulpit discoursing ener- 
getically on the "Word of Wisdom." Presently he brought 


hile teaching a lesson in fourth grade history class, on 
the pioneers, and the settlement of Utah, I told of Indian 
depredations and hardships of the pioneers en route to Salt 
Lake City. I also mentioned the number of babies born at 
Winter quarters on a cold winter night. 

After the lesson was finished, I asked the question: "What 
was one of the great trials of the Pioneers?" 

A little boy's hand was raised promptly, and he confidently 
replied: "Babies." 

Submitted by Mrs. Lewis Sorensen, Redmond, Utah. 


Flora Mae, age five, came home from kindergarten one 
day and while relating her experiences said: 
"Mother, all the children wanted the cookies you gave me 
in my lunch today." 

Mother: "Didn't you give them some? You usually divide 
with them." 

Flora Mae: "No, 'cause these were special good cookies 
today, but they kept wanting them so much till I finally asked 
them if they didn't know that one of the ten commandments 
said 'you mustn't want what your neighbor has got'." 
Submitted by Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Larsen, 

342 Bridge St., Waynesboro, Virginia. 


Mr. J. Whitney Floyd, Extension Forester for Utah, de- 
sires any information which individuals or communities 
may have concerning the location of outstanding trees. He 
would like to know, for example, where the tallest tree in the 
state is located; the oldest; the one with the largest diameter 
or any which have historical interest. If you have any such 
information, you are invited to forward it to Mr. Floyd, in care 
of the Extension Service, Logan, Utah. 


Top left, Gene Halliday, KSL's music director, at the 
console of the KSL Organ over which he has presided for 
many years. Mr. Halliday plans and prepares your Musi- 
cal entertainment for this station. Center, KSL's 15-piece 
concert orchestra. Below, top, William Hardiman, asso- 
ciate orchestra director, and, bottom, Glenn Lee, master 
of ceremonies and director of many KSL musical shows. 

Orchestra members in the picture are, left to right, back 
row: ; Shirl Thayne, drums; Virge Dimond, bass; Frances Os- 
borne, piano. Middle row: Ralph Eskelson, Ralph Jacobsen, 
Milt Rawlings, saxophone and clarinet; Glenn Lee, guitar; 
Oge Jorgensen, cello; Dan Frewin and Seare Morrison, trum- 
pets; Reed Tanner, trombone. Front row, Earl Kevitch, Wil- 
liam Hardiman, Erma Grove, violins; Kaye Roylance, violin, 
oboe and reeds. 

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The Voice of the West 

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